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Jamaica (2002)

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Jamaica 2002 year

Administrative divisions 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.1% (male 399,249; female 380,864)

15-64 years: 64.1% (male 858,433; female 859,174)

65 years and over: 6.8% (male 81,321; female 100,988) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk
Airports 35 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 22 (2002)
Area total: 10,991 sq km

land: 10,831 sq km

water: 160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Background Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office. Subsequent governments have been open market oriented. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.
Birth rate 17.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.23 billion

expenditures: $2.56 billion, including capital expenditures of $232.5 million
Capital Kingston
Climate tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Coastline 1,022 km
Constitution 6 August 1962
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Jamaica
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Death rate 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.2 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sue McCourt COBB

embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 5

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [1] (876) 929-4850 through 4859

FAX: [1] (876) 926-6743
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Seymour MULLINGS

chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660

FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $102.7 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview The economy, which depends heavily on tourism and bauxite, has been stagnant since 1995. After five years of recession, the economy grew 0.8% in 2000 and 1.1% in 2001, but the global economic slowdown, particularly in the United States after the 11 September terrorist attacks, has stunted the economic recovery. Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt, the result of government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy, particularly the financial sector. Depressed economic conditions have led to increased civil unrest, including a mounting crime rate. Jamaica's medium-term prospects will depend upon encouraging investment, maintaining a competitive exchange rate, selling off reacquired firms, and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.
Electricity - consumption 6.27 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 6.74 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89%

hydro: 3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 7% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Environment - current issues heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%
Exchange rates Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 47.277 (December 2001), 45.996 (2001), 42.701 (2000), 39.044 (1999), 36.550 (1998), 35.404 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities alumina, bauxite; sugar, bananas, rum
Exports - partners US 35.7%, EU (excluding UK) 15.9%, UK 13%, Canada 10.5% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.8 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 7%

industry: 28%

services: 65% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 77 30 W
Geography - note strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal
Highways total: 19,000 km

paved: 13,433 km

unpaved: 5,567 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29% (1996) (1996)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $3.1 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, fuel, food, chemicals, fertilizers
Imports - partners US 47.8%, Caricom countries 12.4%, Latin America 7.2%, EU (excluding UK) 4.7% (1999)
Independence 6 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -2% (2000 est.)
Industries tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products
Infant mortality rate 13.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.9% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 21 (2000)
Irrigated land 250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Labor force 1.13 million (1998) (1998)
Labor force - by occupation services 60%, agriculture 21%, industry 19% (1998) (1998)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 16.07%

permanent crops: 9.23%

other: 74.7% (1998 est.)
Languages English, patois English
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 16 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNP 52%, JLP 47.3%; seats by party - PNP 34, JLP 26
Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.64 years

male: 73.65 years

female: 77.73 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 85%

male: 80.8%

female: 89.1% (1995 est.)
Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,954 GRT/25,250 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Latvia 2, United States 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Jamaica Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $30 million (FY95/96 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 747,043 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 523,550 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 27,729 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, first Monday in August (1962)
Nationality noun: Jamaican(s)

adjective: Jamaican
Natural hazards hurricanes (especially July to November)
Natural resources bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Net migration rate -6.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 10 km
Political parties and leaders Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Population 2,680,029 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 34% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate 0.56% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Rocky Point, Port Esquivel (Longswharf)
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 1.215 million (1997)
Railways total: 272 km

standard gauge: 272 km 1.435-m gauge; note - 207 km, belonging to the Jamaica Railway Corporation, were in common carrier service but are no longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to transport bauxite (2000)
Religions Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%, Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist 2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other, including some spiritual cults 34.7%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 353,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 54,640 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 7 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Total fertility rate 2.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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