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Jamaica (2001)

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Jamaica 2001 year

Administrative divisions 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Age structure 0-14 years:
29.7% (male 405,189; female 386,555)

15-64 years:
63.52% (male 845,226; female 847,944)

65 years and over:
6.78% (male 80,667; female 100,055) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk
Airports 35 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
22 (2000 est.)
Area total:
10,990 sq km

10,830 sq km

160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Background Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office. Subsequent governments have been open market oriented. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.
Birth rate 18.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$2.23 billion

$2.56 billion, including capital expenditures of $232.5 million (FY99/00 est.)
Capital Kingston
Climate tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Coastline 1,022 km
Constitution 6 August 1962
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Death rate 5.48 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $4.7 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Stanley Louis MCLELLAND

Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 5

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[1] (876) 929-4850 through 4859

[1] (876) 926-6743
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL

1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 452-0660

[1] (202) 452-0081

consulate(s) general:
Miami and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $102.7 million (1995)
Economy - overview Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite (alumina and bauxite account for more than half of exports) and tourism. Since assuming office in 1992, Prime Minister PATTERSON has eliminated most price controls, streamlined tax schedules, and privatized government enterprises. Continued tight monetary and fiscal policies have helped slow inflation - although inflationary pressures are mounting - and stabilize the exchange rate, but have resulted in the slowdown of economic growth (moving from 1.5% in 1992 to 0.5% in 1995). In 1996, GDP showed negative growth (-1.4%) and remained negative through 1999. Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; the weak financial condition of business in general resulting in receiverships or closures and downsizings of companies; the shift in investment portfolios to non-productive, short-term high yield instruments; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt for government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy, particularly the financial sector. Depressed economic conditions in 1999-2000 led to increased civil unrest, including a mounting crime rate. Jamaica's medium-term prospects will depend upon encouraging investment in the productive sectors, maintaining a competitive exchange rate, stabilizing the labor environment, selling off reacquired firms, and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.
Electricity - consumption 6.073 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 6.53 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



6.36% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Environment - current issues heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%
Exchange rates Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 45.557 (January 2001), 42.701 (2000), 39.044 (1999), 36.550 (1998), 35.404 (1997), 37.120 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

head of government:
Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)

Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities alumina, bauxite; sugar, bananas, rum
Exports - partners US 35.7%, EU (excluding UK) 15.8%, UK 13%, Canada 10.5% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


57.4% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 77 30 W
Geography - note strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal
Highways total:
19,000 km

13,433 km

5,567 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
28.9% (1996)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, fuel, food, chemicals, fertilizers
Imports - partners US 47.8%, Caricom countries 12.4%, Latin America 7.2%, EU (excluding UK) 4.7% (1999)
Independence 6 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -2% (2000 est.)
Industries tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products
Infant mortality rate 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 21 (2000)
Irrigated land 350 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Labor force 1.13 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation services 60%, agriculture 21%, industry 19% (1998)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

39% (1993 est.)
Languages English, Creole
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 50, JLP 10
Life expectancy at birth total population:
75.42 years

73.45 years

77.49 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:


89.1% (1995 est.)
Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,930 GRT/3,065 DWT

ships by type:
petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Jamaica Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $30 million (FY95/96 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
736,627 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
517,077 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
27,729 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, first Monday in August (1962)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards hurricanes (especially July to November)
Natural resources bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Net migration rate -7.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 10 km
Political parties and leaders Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Population 2,665,636 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 34.2% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate 0.51% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Rocky Point, Port Esquivel (Longswharf)
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 1.215 million (1997)
Railways total:
370 km

standard gauge:
370 km 1.435-m gauge; note - 207 km belong to the Jamaica Railway Corporation in common carrier service, but are no longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to transport bauxite
Religions Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%, Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist 2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other, including some spiritual cults 34.7%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
fully automatic domestic telephone network


satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 353,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 54,640 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 7 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Total fertility rate 2.08 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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