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Jamaica (2005)

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Jamaica 2005 year

Administrative divisions 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

note: for local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.5% (male 385,099/female 367,398)

15-64 years: 65.6% (male 897,953/female 893,509)

65 years and over: 6.9% (male 83,632/female 104,241) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, vegetables, poultry, goats, milk, crustaceans, and mollusks
Airports 35 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 5 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 22 (2004 est.)
Area total: 10,991 sq km

land: 10,831 sq km

water: 160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Background Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a drop off in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.
Birth rate 16.56 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.793 billion

expenditures: $3.157 billion, including capital expenditures of $236 million (2004 est.)
Capital Kingston
Climate tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Coastline 1,022 km
Constitution 6 August 1962
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Jamaica
Death rate 5.37 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $5.964 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sue McCourt COBB

embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 5

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [1] (876) 929-4850 through 4859

FAX: [1] (876) 935-6001
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon SHIRLEY

chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660

FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $16 million (2003)
Economy - overview The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which now account for 60% of GDP. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. The global economic slowdown, particularly after the terrorist attacks in the US on 11 September 2001, stunted economic growth; the economy rebounded moderately in 2003-04, with brisk tourist seasons. But the economy faces serious long-term problems: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a sizable merchandise trade deficit; large-scale unemployment; and a growing internal debt, the result of government bailouts to ailing sectors of the economy. The ratio of debt to GDP is close to 150%. Inflation, previously a bright spot, is expected to remain in the double digits. Uncertain economic conditions have led to increased civil unrest, including gang violence fueled by the drug trade. In 2004, the government faced the difficult prospect of having to achieve fiscal discipline in order to maintain debt payments while simultaneously attacking a serious and growing crime problem which is hampering economic growth. Attempts at deficit control were derailed by Hurricane Ivan in September 2004, which required substantial government spending to repair the damage. Despite the hurricane, tourism looks set to enjoy solid growth for the foreseeable future.
Electricity - consumption 5.849 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 6.289 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Environment - current issues heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%
Exchange rates Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 61.197 (2004), 57.741 (2003), 48.416 (2002), 45.996 (2001), 42.986 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $1.679 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel, mineral fuels
Exports - partners US 17.4%, Canada 14.8%, France 13%, China 10.5%, UK 8.7%, Netherlands 7.5%, Norway 6%, Germany 5.9% (2004)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6.1%

industry: 32.7%

services: 61.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.9% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 77 30 W
Geography - note strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal
Highways total: 18,700 km

paved: 13,109 km

unpaved: 5,591 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 30.3% (2000)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $3.624 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
Imports - partners US 38.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 13.2%, France 5.6%, Japan 4.7% (2004)
Independence 6 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -2% (2000 est.)
Industries tourism, bauxite/alumina, textiles, agro processing, wearing apparel, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Infant mortality rate total: 12.36 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.35 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12.4% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Labor force 1.14 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 20.1%, industry 16.6%, services 63.4% (2003)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 16.07%

permanent crops: 10.16%

other: 73.77% (2001)
Languages English, patois English
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 16 October 2002 (next to be held in October 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNP 52%, JLP 47.3%; seats by party - PNP 34, JLP 26
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.33 years

male: 71.63 years

female: 75.12 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 87.9%

male: 84.1%

female: 91.6% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 74,881 GRT/100,682 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 5, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 2, Greece 5, UAE 1) (2005)
Military branches Jamaica Defense Force: Ground Forces, Coast Guard, Air Wing
Military expenditures - dollar figure $31.2 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (2003)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1962)
Nationality noun: Jamaican(s)

adjective: Jamaican
Natural hazards hurricanes (especially July to November)
Natural resources bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Net migration rate -4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Hyacinth BENNETT]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Population 2,731,832 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 19.7% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 0.71% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Kingston, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Port Rhoades, Rocky Point
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 272 km

standard gauge: 272 km 1.435-m gauge

note: 207 of these km belonging to the Jamaica Railway Corporation had been in common carrier service until 1992 but are no longer operational; 57 km of the remaining track is privately owned and used by ALCAN to transport bauxite (2003)
Religions Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%, Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist 2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other including some spiritual cults 34.7%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network

domestic: NA

international: country code - 1-876; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 444,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.4 million (2002)
Television broadcast stations 7 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Total fertility rate 1.95 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (2004 est.)
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