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Guyana (2008)

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Guyana 2008 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Age structure 0-14 years: 26.1% (male 102,111/female 98,325)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 266,288/female 261,620)

65 years and over: 5.3% (male 17,308/female 23,443) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, rice, shrimp, fish, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products
Airports 93 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

under 914 m: 6 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 84

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 69 (2007)
Area total: 214,970 sq km

land: 196,850 sq km

water: 18,120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Idaho
Background Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to black settlement of urban areas and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. This ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006.
Birth rate 18.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $419.4 million

expenditures: $527.4 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Georgetown

geographic coordinates: 6 48 N, 58 10 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
Coastline 459 km
Constitution 6 October 1980
Country name conventional long form: Cooperative Republic of Guyana

conventional short form: Guyana

former: British Guiana
Death rate 8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $1.2 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David M. ROBINSON

embassy: 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown

mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown; US Embassy, 3170 Georgetown Place, Washington DC 20521-3170

telephone: [592] 225-4900 through 4909

FAX: [592] 225-8497
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Bayney KARRAN

chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900

FAX: [1] (202) 232-1297

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international all of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks arbitration under provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to resolve the long-standing dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters
Economic aid - recipient $136.8 million (1995), Heavily Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) $253 million (1997) (2005)
Economy - overview The Guyanese economy exhibited moderate economic growth in 2001-07, based on expansion in the agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiatives, a more realistic exchange rate, fairly low inflation, and the continued support of international organizations. Economic recovery since the 2005 flood-related contraction has been buoyed by increases in remittances and foreign direct investment. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure. The government is juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. In March 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank, Guyana's principal donor, canceled Guyana's nearly $470 million debt, equivalent to nearly 41% of GDP. The bauxite mining sector should benefit in the near term from restructuring and partial privatization, and the state-owned sugar industry will conduct efficiency increasing modernizations. Export earnings from agriculture and mining have fallen sharply, while the import bill has risen, driven by higher energy prices. Guyana's entrance into the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) in January 2006 will broaden the country's export market, primarily in the raw materials sector.
Electricity - consumption 750.7 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 807.3 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Roraima 2,835 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups East Indian 50%, black 36%, Amerindian 7%, white, Chinese, and mixed 7%
Exchange rates Guyanese dollars per US dollar - 201.89 (2007), 200.28 (2006), 200.79 (2005), 198.31 (2004), 193.88 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 August 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President Janet JAGAN and reelected in 2001, and again in 2006

head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since October 1992, except for a period as chief of state after the death of President Cheddi JAGAN on 6 March 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature

elections: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of vote 54.6%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $499.4 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber
Exports - partners US 18.8%, Canada 18.4%, UK 8.7%, Portugal 6.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.9%, Netherlands 4.3%, Belgium 4.3%, Jamaica 4.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green, with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35.2%

industry: 19%

services: 45.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.5% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 5 00 N, 59 00 W
Geography - note the third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis; rising money laundering related to drug trafficking and human smuggling
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $835.8 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 10,070 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
Imports - partners Trinidad and Tobago 23%, US 21.3%, China 9.7%, Cuba 6.3%, UK 4.5% (2006)
Independence 26 May 1966 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2007 est.)
Industries bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
Infant mortality rate total: 31.35 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 27.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10.4% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 1,500 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court and the Judicial Court of Appeal, with right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice
Labor force 418,000 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 2,949 km

border countries: Brazil 1,606 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Land use arable land: 2.23%

permanent crops: 0.14%

other: 97.63% (2005)
Languages English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu
Legal system based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (65 seats; members elected by popular vote, also not more than 4 non-elected non-voting ministers and 2 non-elected non-voting parliamentary secretaries appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - PPP/C 54.6%, PNC/R 34%, AFC 8.1%, other 3.3%; seats by party - PPP/C 36, PNC/R 22, AFC 5, other 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.17 years

male: 63.52 years

female: 68.95 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 98.8%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.5% (2003 est.)
Location Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,516 GRT/14,193 DWT

by type: cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1

registered in other countries: 2 (St Vincent and The Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2007)
Military branches Guyana Defense Force: Army (includes Coast Guard, Air Corps) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (2006)
National holiday Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Nationality noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Guyanese
Natural hazards flash floods are a constant threat during rainy seasons
Natural resources bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Net migration rate -7.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN and Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Guyana Action Party or GAP [Paul HARDY]; Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Bharrat JAGDEO]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Guyana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARAINE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Amerindian People's Association; Guyana Citizens Initiative; Guyana Bar Association; Guyana Human Rights Association; Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
Population 769,095

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.234% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)
Religions Christian 50%, Hindu 35%, Muslim 10%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.018 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.738 male(s)/female

total population: 1.006 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fair system for long-distance service

domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; fixed-line teledensity is about 15 per 100 persons; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 37 per 100 persons in 2005

international: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 110,100 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 281,400 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 3 (1 public station; 2 private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)
Terrain mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Total fertility rate 2.04 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.1% (understated) (2000)
Waterways Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively (2006)
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