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Guyana (2001)

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Guyana 2001 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
Age structure 0-14 years:
28.19% (male 100,194; female 96,309)

15-64 years:
66.89% (male 234,976; female 231,360)

65 years and over:
4.92% (male 15,324; female 19,018) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest and fishery potential not exploited
Airports 51 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
36 (2000 est.)
Area total:
214,970 sq km

196,850 sq km

18,120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Idaho
Background Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966 and became a republic in 1970. In 1989 Guyana launched an Economic Recovery Program, which marked a dramatic reversal from a state-controlled, socialist economy towards a more open, free market system. Results through the first decade have proven encouraging.
Birth rate 17.92 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$220.1 million

$286.4 million, including capital expenditures of $86.6 million (1998)
Capital Georgetown
Climate tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)
Coastline 459 km
Constitution 6 October 1980
Country name conventional long form:
Co-operative Republic of Guyana

conventional short form:

British Guiana
Currency Guyanese dollar (GYD)
Death rate 8.87 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.1 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Ronald D. GODARD

100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown

mailing address:
P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown

[592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969

[592] (2) 58497
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL

2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 265-6900

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international all of the area west of the Essequibo (river) claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari [Koetari] rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)
Economic aid - recipient $84 million (1995), Heavily Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) $253 million (1997)
Economy - overview Severe drought and political turmoil contributed to Guyana's negative growth of -1.8% for 1998 following six straight years of growth of 5% or better. Growth came back to a positive 1.8% in 1999 and 3% in 2000. Underlying growth factors have included expansion in the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a moderate inflation rate, and continued support by international organizations. President JAGDEO, the former finance minister, is taking steps to reform the economy, including drafting an investment code and restructuring the inefficient and unresponsive public sector. Problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure. The government must persist in efforts to manage its sizable external debt and attract new investment.
Electricity - consumption 423.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 455 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Mount Roraima 2,835 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups East Indian 49%, black 32%, mixed 12%, Amerindian 6%, white and Chinese 1%
Exchange rates Guyanese dollars per US dollar - 184.1 (November 2000), 182.2 (2000), 178.0 (1999), 150.5 (1998), 142.4 (1997), 140.4 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 August 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President JAGAN

head of government:
Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since NA December 1997)

Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature

president elected by the majority party in the National Assembly following legislative elections, which must be held at least every five years; elections last held 19 March 2001 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $570 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber
Exports - partners US 22%, Canada 22%, UK 18%, Netherlands Antilles 11%, Jamaica (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green, with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green
GDP purchasing power parity - $3.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


32.8% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 5 00 N, 59 00 W
Highways total:
7,970 km

590 km

7,380 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $660 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
Imports - partners US 29%, Trinidad and Tobago 18%, Netherlands Antilles 16%, UK 7%, Japan (1999)
Independence 26 May 1966 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7.1% (1997 est.)
Industries bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining
Infant mortality rate 38.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.9% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,300 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature; Judicial Court of Appeal; High Court
Labor force 245,492 (1992)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
2,462 km

border countries:
Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

8% (1993 est.)
Languages English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Legal system based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (65 seats, 53 elected by popular vote, 10 elected by the ten Regional Democratic Councils, and 2 elected by the National Congress of Local Democratic Organs; members serve five-year terms)

last held 19 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPP/C 34, PNC 27, GAP and WPA 2, ROAR 1, TUF 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
63.31 years

60.52 years

66.24 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population:


97.5% (1995 est.)
Location Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
Map references South America
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200 NM or to the outer edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,929 GRT/4,507 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service (GNS), Guyana Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $7 million (FY94)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.7% (FY94)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
204,938 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
154,259 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
Nationality noun:
Guyanese (singular and plural)

Natural hazards flash floods are a constant threat during rainy seasons
Natural resources bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Net migration rate -8.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Guyana or AFG (includes Guyana Labor Party or GLP and Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARINE]; Guyana Action Party or GAP [leader NA]; Guyana Labor Party or GLP [leader NA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Hugh Desmond HOYTE]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Janet JAGEN]; Rise, Organize and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPARNINE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Civil Liberties Action Committee or CLAC; Guyana Council of Indian Organizations or GCIO; Rise, Organize and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; Trades Union Congress or TUC

the GCIO and the CLAC are small and active but not well organized
Population 697,181

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.07% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 420,000 (1997)
Railways total:
187 km (all dedicated to ore transport)

standard gauge:
139 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
48 km 0.914-m gauge
Religions Christian 50%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 8%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
fair system for long-distance calling

microwave radio relay network for trunk lines

tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 70,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,100 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 3 (one public station; two private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)
Terrain mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Total fertility rate 2.1 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 12% (1992 est.)
Waterways 5,900 km (total length of navigable waterways)

Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively
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