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Burundi (2003)

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Burundi 2003 year

Administrative divisions 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Age structure 0-14 years: 46.7% (male 1,438,759; female 1,409,567)

15-64 years: 50.6% (male 1,516,833; female 1,564,513)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,355; female 100,129) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Airports 7 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Area total: 27,830 sq km

land: 25,650 sq km

water: 2,180 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since then, some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders, intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to be the first step toward holding national elections in three years. While the Government of Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement in December 2002 with three of Burundi's four Hutu rebel groups, implementation of the agreement has been problematic and one rebel group refuses to sign on, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.
Birth rate 39.72 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $125 million

expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Bujumbura
Climate equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Burundi

conventional short form: Burundi

local long form: Republika y'u Burundi

local short form: Burundi

former: Urundi
Currency Burundi franc (BIF)
Death rate 17.8 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.14 billion (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN

embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura

mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura

telephone: [257] 223454

FAX: [257] 222926
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA

chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Disputes - international Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts
Economic aid - recipient $92.7 million (2000)
Economy - overview Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in the death of over 200,000 persons, sent 800,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.
Electricity - consumption 177.5 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001)
Electricity - production 155.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 0.6%

hydro: 99.4%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m

highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Exchange rates Burundi francs per US dollar - NA (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 447.77 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - from the Tutsi minority

head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - from the Tutsi minority

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president

elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha Accord
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $26 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners Switzerland 28.8%, Germany 20.2%, Belgium 9.4%, Kenya 7.8%, Rwanda 6.5%, Netherlands 4.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
GDP purchasing power parity - $3.146 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 50%

industry: 19%

services: 31% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $500 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Highways total: 14,480 km

paved: 1,028 km

unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)
Imports 33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001)
Imports $135 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Belgium 12.4%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, Tanzania 9.3%, Kenya 7.7%, France 7.4%, India 4.5% (2002)
Independence 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Industrial production growth rate 18% (2001)
Industries light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Infant mortality rate total: 71.54 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 78.45 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 64.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 740 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Labor force 3.7 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 974 km

border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Land use arable land: 29.98%

permanent crops: 12.85%

other: 57.17% (1998 est.)
Languages Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Legal system based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the three-year transition period)

elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional government)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, civilians 27, other parties 13
Life expectancy at birth total population: 43.2 years

male: 42.54 years

female: 43.88 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.6%

male: 58.5%

female: 45.2% (2003 est.)
Location Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army (including naval and air units), Gendarmerie
Military expenditures - dollar figure $42.13 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.3% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,375,900 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 723,516 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 16 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 79,462 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Nationality noun: Burundian(s)

adjective: Burundian
Natural hazards flooding, landslides, drought
Natural resources nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]

note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]
Political pressure groups and leaders loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces
Population 6,096,156

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 2.18% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bujumbura
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment: primitive system

domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 18,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Total fertility rate 5.99 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways Lake Tanganyika
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