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Burundi (2001)

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Burundi 2001 year

Administrative divisions 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Age structure 0-14 years:
46.82% (male 1,472,618; female 1,441,548)

15-64 years:
50.37% (male 1,541,131; female 1,593,743)

65 years and over:
2.81% (male 71,984; female 102,873) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Airports 4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Area total:
27,830 sq km

25,650 sq km

2,180 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background Between 1993 and 2000, wide-spread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi created hundreds of thousands of refugees and left tens of thousands dead. Although some refugees have returned from neighboring countries, continued ethnic strife has forced many others to flee. Burundian troops, seeking to secure their borders, have intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Birth rate 40.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$125 million

$176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Bujumbura
Climate equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Burundi

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republika y'u Burundi

local short form:

Currency Burundi franc (BIF)
Death rate 16.36 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.12 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES

Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura

mailing address:
B. P. 1720, Bujumbura

[257] 223454

[257] 222926
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas NDIKUMANA

Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 342-2574

[1] (202) 342-2578
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $1.344 billion (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Only one in four children go to school, and one in nine adults has HIV/AIDS. Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in short supply.
Electricity - consumption 160.1 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 29 million kWh

supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999)
Electricity - production 141 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Lake Tanganyika 772 m

highest point:
Mount Heha 2,670 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Exchange rates Burundi francs per US dollar - 782.36 (January 2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Council of Ministers appointed by president

NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25 July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $32 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners Germany 17%, Belgium 14%, US 8%, France 6%, Switzerland 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


32% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $720 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed
Highways total:
14,480 km

1,028 km

13,452 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
26.6% (1992)
Imports 29 million kWh

supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999)
Imports $110 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Belgium 20%, Zambia 11%, Kenya 8%, South Africa 5%, France 4% (1999)
Independence 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Industrial production growth rate 6.3% (1999 est.)
Industries light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Infant mortality rate 70.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 22% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 140 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Labor force 1.9 million
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total:
974 km

border countries:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

8% (1993 est.)
Languages Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Legal system based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (121 seats; note - new Transitional Constitution expanded the number of seats from 81 to 121 in 1998; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms)

last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)

election results:
percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, various other parties 40
Life expectancy at birth total population:
46.06 years

45.15 years

46.99 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


22.5% (1995 est.)
Location Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie
Military expenditures - dollar figure $57 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.1% (FY97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,394,273 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
728,326 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 16 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
79,360 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding, landslides, drought
Natural resources nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Two national, mainstream governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Luc RUKINGAMA, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]

A multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZENZIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Loosely organized Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Tutsi extremist parties
Population 6,223,897

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 36.2% (1990 est.)
Population growth rate 2.38% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bujumbura
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 440,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.7 male(s)/female

total population:
0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment:
primitive system

sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 16,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 619 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1999)
Terrain hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Total fertility rate 6.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways Lake Tanganyika
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