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Boliwia (2008)

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Boliwia 2008 roku

 Boliwia
Podzial administracyjny 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 34.3% (male 1,593,509/female 1,532,155)


15-64 years: 61.1% (male 2,730,359/female 2,841,872)


65 years and over: 4.6% (male 187,123/female 234,134) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Lotniska 1,061 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 16


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 1,045


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 57


914 to 1,523 m: 183


under 914 m: 800 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,098,580 sq km


land: 1,084,390 sq km


water: 14,190 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Tlo historyczne Boliwia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule w 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established w 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In grudzien 2005, Boliwians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule w 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor majority. However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of the eastern lowlands.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.82 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.1 billion


expenditures: $4 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: La Paz (administrative capital)


geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W


time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Sucre (constitutional capital)
Klimat varies z altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 2 luty 1967; revised w sierpien 1994; possible referendum on new constitution to be held w 2008
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Boliwia


conventional short form: Boliwia


local long form: Republica de Boliwia


local short form: Boliwia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.44 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.8 billion (31grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Philip S. GOLDBERG


embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, La Paz


mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032


telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000


FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Gustavo GUZMAN Saldana


chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410


FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712


consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, New York, Oklahoma City, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile dla Boliwian natural gas and other commodities
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $582.9 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Boliwia is one of the poorest and least developed countries w Latin America. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates w the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Boliwia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large northern hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company, which was made the sole exporter of natural gas. The law also required that the state energy company regain control over the five companies that were privatized during the 1990s - a process that is still underway. In 2006, higher earnings dla mining and hydrocarbons exports pushed the current account surplus to about 12% of Produkt krajowy brutto and the government's higher tax take produced a fiscal surplus after years of large deficits. Debt relief from the G8 - announced w 2005 - also has significantly reduced Boliwia's public sector debt burden. Private investment as a share of Produkt krajowy brutto, however, remains among the lowest w Latin America, and inflation reached double-digit levels w 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.385 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 177,000 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 18,000 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.293 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Rio Paragwaj 90 m


highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy the clearing of land dla agricultural purposes and the international demand dla tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used dla drinking and irrigation
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Grupy etniczne Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Kurs waluty bolivianos per US dollar - 7.8616 (2007), 8.0159 (2006), 8.0661 (2005), 7.9363 (2004), 7.6592 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 styczen 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 styczen 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 styczen 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 styczen 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single five-year term; election last held 18 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%
Eksport 177,000 kWh (2005)
Eksport $4.259 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 10.58 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 18,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Eksport - towary natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin
Eksport - partnerzy Brazylia 45.5%, US 10.8%, Argentyna 9.2%, Kolumbia 6.8%, Japonia 5.5%, South Korea 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green z the coat of arms centered on the yellow band


note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered w the yellow band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 14.5%


industry: 30.5%


services: 55% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), z Peru
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.3%


highest 10%: 47.2% (2002)
Narkotyki world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Kolumbia and Peru) z an estimated 26,500 hectares under cultivation w sierpien 2005, an 8% increase from 2004; transit country dla Peruvian and Kolumbian cocaine destined dla Brazylia, Argentyna, Chile, Paragwaj, and Europe; cultivation steadily increasing despite eradication and alternative crop programs; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders z Brazylia and Paragwaj; major cocaine consumption
Import 18,000 kWh (2007)
Import $3.107 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Import 8,600 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Import - towary petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans
Import - partnerzy Brazylia 29.3%, Argentyna 16%, Chile 12.1%, US 9.1%, Peru 8.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 6 sierpien 1825 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 50.43 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 53.93 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 46.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 12% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMISET, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,320 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed dla 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one w each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases); Konstytucjaal Tribunal (5 primary or titulares and 5 alternate or suplente magistrates appointed by Congress; to rule on constitutional issues); National Electoral Court (6 members elected by Congress, Supreme Court, the President, and the political party z the highest vote w the last election dla 4-year terms)
Sila robocza 4.793 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 40%


industry: 17%


services: 43% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 6,940 km


border countries: Argentyna 832 km, Brazylia 3,423 km, Chile 860 km, Paragwaj 750 km, Peru 1,075 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.78%


permanent crops: 0.19%


other: 97.03% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
System prawny based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members are directly elected from their districts and 60 are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)


elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PODEMOS 13, MAS 12, UN 1, MNR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 73, PODEMOS 43, UN 8, MNR 6
Zywotnosc total population: 66.19 years


male: 63.53 years


female: 68.97 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 86.7%


male: 93.1%


female: 80.7% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Central South America, southwest of Brazylia
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 25 ships (1000 GRT or over) 73,877 GRT/110,148 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 12, carrier 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 9


foreign-owned: 9 (Argentyna 1, Chiny 1, Egipt 1, Iran 1, Wlochy 1, Singapur 1, Syria 1, Tajwan 1, Jemen 1) (2007)
Wojsko Boliwian Armed Forces: Boliwian Army (Ejercito Boliwiano), Boliwian Navy (Armada Boliwiana; includes marines), Boliwian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliwiana, FAB) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.9% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 6 sierpien (1825)
Narodowosc noun: Boliwian(s)


adjective: Boliwian
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding w the northeast (March-April)
Surowce naturalne tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,475 km; refined products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Free Boliwia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Mirta QUEVEDO]; National Unity [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]; Poder Democratico Nacional or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Social Alliance [Rene JOAQUINO]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Boliwia or CSUTCB
Ludnosc 9,119,152 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 60% (2006 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.42% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,504 km


narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.961 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.799 male(s)/female


total population: 0.979 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
System telefoniczny general assessment: privatization beginning w 1995; reliability has steadily improved; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated w La Paz and other cities; mobile- cellular telephone use expanding rapidly; fixed-line teledensity of 7 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 27 per 100 persons


domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded


international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 646,300 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 2.421 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 48 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu rugged Andes Mountains z a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.76 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8% w urban areas; widespread underemployment (2006)
Drogi wodne 10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2007)
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