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Bolivia (2005)

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Bolivia 2005 year

Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Age structure 0-14 years: 35.7% (male 1,613,049/female 1,551,023)

15-64 years: 59.8% (male 2,591,328/female 2,701,892)

65 years and over: 4.5% (male 178,486/female 222,092) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Airports 1,065 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 16

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,049

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 60

914 to 1,523 m: 207

under 914 m: 778 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,098,580 sq km

land: 1,084,390 sq km

water: 14,190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, resolving disputes with coca growers over Bolivia's counterdrug efforts, and waging an anticorruption campaign.
Birth rate 23.76 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.264 billion

expenditures: $2.769 billion, including capital expenditures of $741 million (2004 est.)
Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia

conventional short form: Bolivia

local long form: Republica de Bolivia

local short form: Bolivia
Death rate 7.64 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $5.439 billion (June 2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE

embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz

mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251

FAX: [591] (2) 2433900
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero

chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410

FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas and other commodities
Economic aid - recipient $681 million (2002)
Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, reformed its economy after suffering a disastrous economic crisis in the early 1980s. The reforms spurred real GDP growth, which averaged 4 percent in the 1990s, and poverty rates fell. Economic growth, however, lagged again beginning in 1999 because of a global slowdown and homegrown factors such as political turmoil, civil unrest, and soaring fiscal deficits, all of which hurt investor confidence. In 2003, violent protests against the pro-foreign investment economic policies of President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA led to his resignation and the cancellation of plans to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large northern hemisphere markets. Foreign investment dried up as companies adopted a wait-and-see attitude regarding new President Carlos MESA's willingness to protect investor rights in the face of increased demands by radical groups that the government expropriate foreign-owned assets. Real GDP growth in 2003 and 2004 - helped by increased demand for natural gas in neighboring Brazil - was positive, but still below the levels seen during the 1990s. Bolivia remains dependent on foreign aid from multilateral lenders and foreign governments.
Electricity - consumption 3.848 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 3 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 9 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 4.132 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Exchange rates bolivianos per US dollar - 7.9363 (2004), 7.6592 (2003), 7.17 (2002), 6.6069 (2001), 6.1835 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Eduardo RODRIGUEZ Veltze (since 9 June 2005); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Eduardo RODRIGUEZ Veltze (since 9 June 2005); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held June 2007)

election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was chosen president by Congress; congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the resignation of the elected president on 17 October 2003 and Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert on 9 June 2005, Eduardo RODRIGUEZ Veltze, President of the Supreme Court and constitutional successor, became president.
Exports 3 million kWh (2002)
Exports $1.986 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 2.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin
Exports - partners Brazil 40%, US 13.9%, Colombia 8.7%, Peru 6.3%, Japan 4.5% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13%

industry: 28%

services: 59% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.7% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Highways total: 60,282 km

paved: 3,979 km

unpaved: 56,303 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 32% (1999)
Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 28,450 hectares under cultivation in June 2003, a 23% increase from June 2002; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported mostly to or through Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to European and US drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs under the MESA administration have been unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil and Paraguay
Imports 9 million kWh (2002)
Imports $1.595 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans
Imports - partners Brazil 29.7%, Argentina 17.6%, US 10.8%, Chile 7.7%, Peru 7.3% (2004)
Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 5.7% (2004 est.)
Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Infant mortality rate total: 53.11 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 56.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 49.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.9% (2004 est.)
Irrigated land 1,280 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Labor force 3.8 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 6,743 km

border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Land use arable land: 2.67%

permanent crops: 0.19%

other: 97.14% (2001)
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 68 are directly elected from their districts and 62 are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held June 2007)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.5 years

male: 62.89 years

female: 68.25 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.2%

male: 93.1%

female: 81.6% (2003 est.)
Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Map references South America
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 413,407 GRT/699,901 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 16, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 11 (Argentina 1, Egypt 2, Eritrea 1, Germany 1, Iran 1, Singapore 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 2) (2005)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval; includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana) (2004)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $132.2 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.6% (2004)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Nationality noun: Bolivian(s)

adjective: Bolivian
Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 4,860 km; liquid petroleum gas 47 km; oil 2,457 km; refined products 1,589 km; unknown (oil/water) 247 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Evo MORALES]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [leader NA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman LOAYZA]
Population 8,857,870 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 64% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 1.49% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Radio broadcast stations AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Railways total: 3,519 km

narrow gauge: 3,519 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Telephone system general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly

domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 600,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,401,500 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 48 (1997)
Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Total fertility rate 2.94 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.2% in urban areas

note: widespread underemployment (2003 est.)
Waterways 10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2004)
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