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Bolivia (2002)

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Bolivia 2002 year

Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Age structure 0-14 years: 37.8% (male 1,626,596; female 1,565,124)

15-64 years: 57.7% (male 2,383,852; female 2,491,823)

65 years and over: 4.5% (male 169,583; female 208,156) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Airports 1,109 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 12

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1,069 1,096

over 3,047 m: 1 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 64 65

914 to 1,523 m: 225 236

under 914 m: 776 790 (2002)
Area total: 1,098,580 sq km

land: 1,084,390 sq km

water: 14,190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anticorruption campaign.
Birth rate 26.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $4 billion

expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia

conventional short form: Bolivia

local long form: Republica de Bolivia

local short form: Bolivia
Currency boliviano (BOB)
Death rate 8.05 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.8 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE

embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz

mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

telephone: [591] (2) 2430120, 2430251

FAX: [591] (2) 2433900
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime APARICIO Otero

chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410

FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international continues to demand a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama region was lost to Chile in 1884
Economic aid - recipient $588 million (1997) (1997)
Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and becoming an associate member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances in April, and again in September and October, held down overall growth to 2.5%. Bolivia's GDP failed to grow in 2001 due to the global slowdown and laggard domestic activity. Growth is expected to pick up in 2002, but the fiscal deficit and debt burden will remain high.
Electricity - consumption 3.605 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 11 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 3.87 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 48%

hydro: 50%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Exchange rates bolivianos per US dollar - 6.8613 (January 2002), 6.6069 (2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante (since 4 August 2002); Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 4 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante (since 4 August 2002); Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 4 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)

election results: the new president was chosen by Congress, a result of no candidate winning a majority in the 30 June 2002 election; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada 84, Evo MORALES 43
Exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Exports $1.2 billion (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood
Exports - partners US 32%, Colombia 18%, UK 15%, Brazil 15%, Peru 6% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
GDP purchasing power parity - $21.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 14%

industry: 31%

services: 55% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Highways total: 49,400 km

paved: 2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 46,900 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 46% (1997) (1997)
Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 24,400 hectares under cultivation in June 2002, a 23% increase from June 2001; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs under the SANCHEZ DE LOZADA administration have been unable to keep pace with farmers' attempts to increase cultivation after significant reductions in 1998 and 1999; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade, especially along the borders with Brazil and Paraguay
Imports 11 million kWh (2000)
Imports $1.5 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food
Imports - partners US 24%, Argentina 17%, Brazil 15%, Chile 9%, Peru 5% (2000)
Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 3.9% (1998) (1998)
Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Infant mortality rate 57.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2001 est.)
International organization participation CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,280 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Labor force 2.5 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 6,743 km

border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Land use arable land: 1.73%

permanent crops: 0.21%

other: 98.06% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 11, MAS 8, MIR 5, NFR 2, other 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNR 36, MAS 27, MIR 26, NFR 25, others 16
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.42 years

male: 61.86 years

female: 67.1 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.1%

male: 90.5%

female: 76% (1995 est.)
Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Map references South America
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 196,399 GRT/320,137 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 15, chemical tanker 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of Belize 2, China 2, Cuba 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Honduras 1, Latvia 2, Liberia 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 3, Switzerland 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 5, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $147 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,062,321 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,343,755 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 90,120 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Nationality noun: Bolivian(s)

adjective: Bolivian
Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Political parties and leaders Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB [Otto RICHTER]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement to Socialism or MAS [leader NA]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]

note: the ADN, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]
Population 8,445,134 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.69% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Radio broadcast stations AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Radios 5.25 million (1997)
Railways total: 3,691 km

narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995 est.)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Telephone system general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly

domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 327,600 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 116,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 48 (1997)
Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Total fertility rate 3.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.6% (2000)

note: widespread underemployment (2000)
Waterways 10,000 km (commercially navigable)
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