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Bolivia (2001)

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Bolivia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Age structure 0-14 years:
38.46% (male 1,626,698; female 1,565,748)

15-64 years:
57.07% (male 2,315,098; female 2,421,987)

65 years and over:
4.47% (male 166,986; female 203,946) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber
Airports 1,093 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
800 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1,098,580 sq km

1,084,390 sq km

14,190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Background Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anti-corruption campaign.
Birth rate 27.27 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$2.7 billion

$2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998)
Capital La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Climate varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Bolivia

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica de Bolivia

local short form:
Currency boliviano (BOB)
Death rate 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $6.6 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador V. Manuel ROCHA

Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz

mailing address:
P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

[591] (2) 432254

[591] (2) 433854
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado

3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 483-4410

[1] (202) 328-3712

consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights
Economic aid - recipient $588 million (1997)
Economy - overview Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and joining the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. His successor, Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further improve the country's investment climate with an anticorruption campaign. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances in April, and again in September and October, held down overall growth to 2.5%.
Electricity - consumption 3.377 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 4 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 10 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 3.625 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



1.79% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point:
Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Environment - current issues the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Ethnic groups Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%
Exchange rates bolivianos per US dollar - 6.4071 (January 2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president

president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held May or June 2002)

election results:
Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of vote - Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR, and PDC
Exports 4 million kWh (1999)
Exports $1.26 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood
Exports - partners UK 16%, US 12%, Peru 11%, Argentina 10%, Colombia 7% (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band
GDP purchasing power parity - $20.9 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


53% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Highways total:
49,400 km

2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways)

46,900 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
31.7% (1990)
Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru, a distant second) with an estimated 14,600 hectares under cultivation in 2000, a 33% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1999 levels; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs have slashed illicit coca cultivation during the BANZER administration beginning in 1997
Imports 10 million kWh (1999)
Imports $1.86 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food
Imports - partners US 32%, Japan 24%, Brazil 12%, Argentina 12%, Chile 7%, Peru 4%, Germany 3%, other 6% (1998)
Independence 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (1995 est.)
Industries mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing
Infant mortality rate 58.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.4% (2000 est.)
International organization participation CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
Labor force 2.5 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
6,743 km

border countries:
Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

21% (1993 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Legal system based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected)

Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 32, MNR 26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4
Life expectancy at birth total population:
64.06 years

61.53 years

66.72 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


76% (1995 est.)
Location Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Map references South America
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 141,017 GRT/211,058 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 5, cargo 20, chemical tanker 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 3 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $147 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,005,660 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,306,452 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
90,120 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding in the northeast (March-April)
Natural resources tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party or PDC [leader NA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Hugo BANZER Suarez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [leader NA]; Pachacuti Indigenous Movement [Filipe QUISPE]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]

the ADN, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions
Population 8,300,463 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.76% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Radio broadcast stations AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
Radios 5.25 million (1997)
Railways total:
3,691 km (single track)

narrow gauge:
3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female

total population:
0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)
Telephone system general assessment:
new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly

primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 327,600 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 116,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 48 (1997)
Terrain rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Total fertility rate 3.51 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.4% (1997)

widespread underemployment
Waterways 10,000 km (commercially navigable)
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