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Bahrain (2002)

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Bahrain 2002 year

Administrative divisions 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.2% (male 97,022; female 94,605)

15-64 years: 67.7% (male 261,919; female 182,727)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 10,230; female 9,894) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Airports 4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 665 sq km

land: 665 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining, and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms, and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In local elections held in May 2002, Bahraini women were allowed to vote and run for office for the first time.
Birth rate 19.53 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.8 billion

expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)
Capital Manama
Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Coastline 161 km
Constitution adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun
Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Death rate 3.95 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $2.8 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 273-300

FAX: [973] 272-594
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $48.4 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Electricity - consumption 5,361.45 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 5.765 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $5.5 billion (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners India 8.4%, US 3.9%, Saudi Arabia 3.4%, Japan 2.8%, South Korea 2.1% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $8.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 35%

services: 64% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $13,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 3,164 km

paved: 2,433 km

unpaved: 731 km

note: a paved causeway links Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $4.5 billion (2001)
Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 28.7%, US 12.5%, UK 6.6%, France 6%, Japan 4% (2000)
Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Infant mortality rate 19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 50 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Labor force 295,000

note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.) (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 4.35%

permanent crops: 4.35%

other: 91.3% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members elected by restricted vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006)

election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.47 years

male: 71.05 years

female: 75.96 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.5%

male: 91.6%

female: 84.2% (2002 est.)
Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,784 GRT/384,561 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, container 2, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $526.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.7% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 222,572 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 121,955 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 15 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 5,926 (2002 est.)
National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini
Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Net migration rate 1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but politically oriented nongovernment organizations are allowed
Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Population 656,397

note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.67% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 338,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.43 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.29 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 152,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 58,543 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Total fertility rate 2.75 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (1998 est.)
Waterways none
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