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Bahrain (2007)

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Bahrain 2007 year

Administrative divisions 5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor
Age structure 0-14 years: 26.9% (male 96,217/female 94,275)

15-64 years: 69.5% (male 284,662/female 207,555)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 13,451/female 12,413) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Airports 3 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 665 sq km

land: 665 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background In 1782, the Al Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa, after coming to power in 1999, pushed economic and political reforms to improve relations with the Shi'a community and Shi'a political societies participated in 2006 parliamentary and municipal elections. Al Wifaq, the largest Shi'a political society, won the largest number of seats in the elected chamber of the legislature. However, Shi'a discontent has resurfaced in recent years with street demonstrations and occasional low-level violence.
Birth rate 17.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.894 billion

expenditures: $4.516 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Manama

geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Coastline 161 km
Constitution adopted 14 February 2002
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun
Death rate 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $7.159 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador J. Adam ERELI

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 1724-2700

FAX: [973] 1727-0547
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir bin Muhammad al-BALUSHI

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $103.9 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from the UAE and Kuwait (2004)
Economy - overview With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Petroleum production and refining account for over 60% of Bahrain's export receipts, over 70% of government revenues, and 11% of GDP (exclusive of allied industries), underpinning Bahrain's strong economic growth in recent years. Other major segments of Bahrain's economy are the financial and construction sectors. Bahrain is actively pursuing the diversification and privatization of its economy to reduce the country's dependence on oil. As part of this effort, in August 2006 Bahrain and the US implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Electricity - consumption 7.614 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 8.187 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)
Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2006), 0.376 (2005), 0.376 (2004), 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $11.7 billion (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners Saudi Arabia 3.2%, US 3%, Japan 2.3%

note: excludes oil exports (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.3%

industry: 45%

services: 54.6% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.1% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $8.565 billion (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 37.6%, Japan 6.8%, US 6.2%, UK 6.2%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.2% (2006)
Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 16.18 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 18.89 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.1% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Labor force 352,000

note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 1%

industry: 79%

services: 20% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.82%

permanent crops: 5.63%

other: 91.55% (2005)
Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral legislature consists of the Consultative Council (40 members appointed by the King) and the Council of Representatives or Chamber of Deputies (40 seats; members directly elected to serve four-year terms)

elections: Council of Representatives - last held November-December 2006 (next election to be held in 2010)

election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - al Wifaq (Shia) 17, al Asala (Sunni Salafi) 5, al Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 7, independents 11; note - seats by party as of February 2007 - al Wifaq 17, al Asala 8, al Minbar 7, al Mustaqbal (Moderate Sunni pro-government) 4, unassociated independents (all Sunni) 3, independent affiliated with al Wifaq (Sunni oppositionist) 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.68 years

male: 72.18 years

female: 77.25 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.5%

male: 88.6%

female: 83.6% (2001 census)
Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 220,264 GRT/314,289 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwait 3) (2007)
Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Naval Force, Air Force, National Guard
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.5% (2006)
National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini
Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Net migration rate 0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 52 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law
Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97 and have recently engaged in protests with occasional low-level violence; protests related to a host of issues, including the 2002 constitution, elections, unemployment, and release of detainees; Sunni Islamist legislators support a greater role for Shari'a in daily life; several small leftist and other groups are active
Population 708,573

note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.392% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.021 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.372 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.084 male(s)/female

total population: 1.255 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones

international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 193,300 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 898,900 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Total fertility rate 2.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (2005 est.)
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