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Bahrain (2004)

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Bahrain 2004 year

Administrative divisions 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Age structure 0-14 years: 28.4% (male 97,179; female 95,043)

15-64 years: 68.4% (male 271,015; female 192,342)

65 years and over: 3.3% (male 11,426; female 10,881) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Airports 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 2

1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 665 sq km

land: 665 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
Birth rate 18.54 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.981 billion

expenditures: $3.019 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2003 est.)
Capital Manama
Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Coastline 161 km
Constitution adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun
Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Death rate 4.03 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $4.682 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 1724-2700

FAX: [973] 1725-6242 (consular)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador KHALIFA bin ALI bin Rashid Al Khalifa

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from each of Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Kuwait (2002)
Economy - overview In well-to-do Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil granted as aid. A large share of exports consist of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
Electricity - consumption 5.819 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 6.257 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002), 0.376 (2001), 0.376 (2000), 0.376 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $6.492 billion (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners US 3.5%, India 3.3%, South Korea 2.2% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $11.29 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 42.1%

services: 57.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $16,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.9% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 3,261 km

paved: 2,531 km

unpaved: 730 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $5.126 billion (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 30.7%, US 11.4%, Japan 7.8%, UK 5.7%, Germany 5.4% (2003)
Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 17.91 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 20.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.2% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 50 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Labor force 350,000

note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1%, industry, commerce, and services 79%, government 20% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.82%

permanent crops: 5.63%

other: 91.55% (2001)
Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held NA 2006)

election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 21, Sunni Islamists 9, other 10

note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.98 years

male: 71.52 years

female: 76.51 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.1%

male: 91.9%

female: 85% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Merchant marine total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 219,083 GRT/312,638 DWT

by type: bulk 3, container 2, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: Hong Kong 1, Kuwait 1

registered in other countries: 2 (2004 est.)
Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $618.1 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 7.5% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 221,661 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 121,484 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 6,396 (2004 est.)
National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini
Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Net migration rate 1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but politically oriented societies are allowed
Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Population 677,886

note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 1.56% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.41 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female

total population: 1.27 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 185,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 443,100 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Total fertility rate 2.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (1998 est.)
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