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Bahrain (2006)

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Bahrain 2006 year

Administrative divisions 5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.4% (male 96,567/female 94,650)

15-64 years: 69.1% (male 280,272/female 202,451)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,753/female 11,892) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Airports 3 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Area total: 665 sq km

land: 665 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background In 1782, the Al Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. Sheikh HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa, who came to power in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shia community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of Sheikh HAMAD's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Sheikh HAMAD pronounced Bahrain a constitutional monarchy and changed his status from amir to king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
Birth rate 17.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.662 billion

expenditures: $3.447 billion; including capital expenditures of $700 million (2005 est.)
Capital name: Manama

geographic coordinates: 26 13 N, 50 35 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Coastline 161 km
Constitution new constitution 14 February 2002
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun
Death rate 4.14 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $6.814 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 1724-2700

FAX: [973] 1727-0547
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir bin Muhammad al-BALUSHI

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from the UAE and Kuwait (2002)
Economy - overview Petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of Bahrain's export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In 2005 Bahrain and the US ratified a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state.
Electricity - consumption 6.83 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 7.345 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Environment - current issues desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)
Exchange rates Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2005), 0.376 (2004), 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002), 0.376 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $11.17 billion (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2002 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners Saudi Arabia 3.3%, US 2.6%, UAE 2.3% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.5%

industry: 38.7%

services: 60.8% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Geography - note close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Heliports 1 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $7.83 billion (2005 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2002 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 36.4%, Japan 6.6%, Germany 6.4%, US 5.4%, UK 5%, UAE 4.1% (2005)
Independence 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Industries petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.7% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch High Civil Appeals Court
Labor force 380,000

note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 1%

industry: 79%

services: 20% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.82%

permanent crops: 5.63%

other: 91.55% (2005)
Languages Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Legal system based on Islamic law and English common law
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held in September 2006)

election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Sunni Islamists 12, Shia grouping 7, other groupings and independents 21

note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.45 years

male: 71.97 years

female: 77 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.1%

male: 91.9%

female: 85% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 235,449 GRT/339,728 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwait 3) (2006)
Military branches Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $627.7 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Nationality noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini
Natural hazards periodic droughts; dust storms
Natural resources oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Net migration rate 0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 20 km; oil 52 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law
Political pressure groups and leaders Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97 and have recently engaged in protests and marches, demanding that more power be vested in the elected Council of Representatives and that the government do more to decrease unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Population 698,585

note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.45% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.38 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female

total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 196,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 748,700 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Total fertility rate 2.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (2005 est.)
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