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Wlochy (2008)

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Wlochy 2008 roku

 Wlochy
Podzial administracyjny 15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions* (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma); Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia*, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, marzece, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Sardegna* (Sardinia), Sicilia*, Toscana (Tuscany), Trentino-Alto Adige* (Trentino-South Tyrol), Umbria, Valle d'Aosta* (Aosta Valley), Veneto
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 13.8% (male 4,121,246/female 3,874,971)


15-64 years: 66.4% (male 19,527,203/female 19,059,897)


65 years and over: 19.9% (male 4,823,244/female 6,741,172) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 132 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 101


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 32


1,524 to 2,437 m: 15


914 to 1,523 m: 34


under 914 m: 13 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 11


under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Terytorium total: 301,230 sq km


land: 294,020 sq km


water: 7,210 sq km


note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Arizona
Tlo historyczne Wlochy became a nation-state w 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along z Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close w the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance z Nazi Niemcy led to Wlochy's defeat w Swiat War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy w 1946 and economic revival followed. Wlochy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union w 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Wlochy compared z the prosperous north.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $976 billion


expenditures: $1.029 trillion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Rome


geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine w far north; hot, dry w south
Linia brzegowa 7,600 km
Konstytucja passed 11 grudzien 1947, effective 1 styczen 1948; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Italian Republic


conventional short form: Wlochy


local long form: Repubblica Italiana


local short form: Italia


former: Kingdom of Wlochy
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.345 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald P. SPOGLI


embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome


mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624


telephone: [39] (06) 46741


FAX: [39] (06) 488-2672, 4674-2356


consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Giovanni CASTELLANETA


chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400


FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco


consulate(s): Detroit
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Wlochy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $1 billion (2002 est.)
Ekonomia Wlochy has a diversified industrial economy z roughly the same total and per capita output as Francja and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, welfare-dependent, agricultural south, z 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Wlochy has pursued a tight fiscal policy w order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. The current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. Wlochy has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Wlochy's rigid labor market and over-generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions. But the leadership faces a severe economic constraint: Wlochy's official debt remains above 100% of Produkt krajowy brutto, and the government has found it difficult to bring the budget deficit down to a level that would allow a rapid decrease w that debt. The economy continues to grow by less than the euro-zone average and growth is expected to decelerate from 1.9% w 2006 and 2007 to under 1.5% w 2008 as the euro-zone and world economies slow.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 307.1 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.109 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 50.26 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 278.5 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m


highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians w the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians w the south)
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 maj 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister (referred to w Wlochy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 17 maj 2006) note - PRODI resigns after no confidence vote w the Senate on 24 styczen 2008, but retains his office until new prime minister is named; when men named by President NAPOLITANO cannot form a government acceptable to Parliament, NAPOLITANO dissolves parliament and calls dla new elections on kwiecien 13


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 10 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2013); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament


election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the fourth round of voting; electoral college vote - 543
Eksport 1.109 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $474.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 379.8 million cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 521,400 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 13.2%, Francja 11.7%, US 7.6%, Hiszpania 7.3%, UK 6.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Irlandia, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; inspired by the French flag brought to Wlochy by Napoleon w 1797
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1.9%


industry: 28.8%


services: 69.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 42 50 N, 12 50 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Ladowiska helikopterow 5 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.3%


highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
Narkotyki important gateway dla and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
Import 50.26 billion kWh (2005)
Import $483.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 70.45 billion cu m (2005)
Import 2.182 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 16.7%, Francja 9.2%, Holandia 5.6%, Chiny 5.2%, Belgia 4.2%, Hiszpania 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 17 marzec 1861 (Kingdom of Wlochy proclaimed; Wlochy was not finally unified until 1870)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.3% (2007 est.)
Przemysl tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 5.72 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 1.7% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 27,500 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
Sila robocza 24.86 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 5%


industry: 32%


services: 63% (2001)
Granica total: 1,932.2 km


border countries: Austria 430 km, Francja 488 km, Watykan 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slowenia 232 km, Szwajcaria 740 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 26.41%


permanent crops: 9.09%


other: 64.5% (2005)
Jezyki Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority w Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority w the Trieste-Gorizia area)
System prawny based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions w Konstytucjaal Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats; members elected by proportional vote z the winning coalition w each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote z the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; to serve five-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 9-10 kwiecien 2006 (next to be held 13 kwiecien 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 9-10 kwiecien 2006 (next to be held w maj 2011)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - The Union 159 (DS 62, DL 39, RC 27, Together z the Union 11, other 20), House of Freedoms 156 (FI 79, AN 41, UDC 21, LEGA 13, other 2); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - The Union 349 (DS and DL 218, RC 41, Rose w the Fist 18, Wlochy of Values 20, PdCI 16, Greens Federation 16, UDEUR 14, other 6), House of Freedoms 281 (FI 134, AN 72, Union of Christian and Center Democrats 39, LEGA 23, other 13)
Zywotnosc total population: 79.94 years


male: 77.01 years


female: 83.07 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 98.4%


male: 98.8%


female: 98% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunezja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 604 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,529,192 GRT/13,150,989 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 53, cargo 46, carrier 1, chemical tanker 141, combination ore/oil 1, container 32, liquefied gas 33, livestock carrier 3, passenger 17, passenger/cargo 156, petroleum tanker 40, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 35, specialized tanker 14, vehicle carrier 28


foreign-owned: 62 (Dania 2, Francja 5, Niemcy 1, Grecja 13, Szwecja 1, Szwajcaria 5, Tajwan 11, Turcja 1, UK 7, US 16)


registered w other countries: 169 (Bahamas 1, Belize 4, Boliwia 1, Kajmany 10, Cypr 5, Francja 2, Gibraltar 1, Grecja 1, Wyspa Man 1, Liberia 31, Malta 45, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Norwegia 4, Panama 10, Portugalia 11, Singapur 4, Slowacja 1, Hiszpania 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 19, Szwecja 7, Turcja 3, UK 4) (2007)
Wojsko Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Corpo dei Carabinieri, CC) (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.8% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 2 czerwiec (1946)
Narodowosc noun: Italian(s)


adjective: Italian
Naturalne zagrozenia regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence w Venice
Surowce naturalne coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 18,863 km; oil 1,258 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center-Left Union Coalition [Romano PRODI]: Ulivo Alliance (including Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO] (along z the DL merged into the Democratic Party or PD); Daisy-Democracy is Freedom or DL [Francjasco RUTELLI] (along z the DS merged into the Democratic Party or PD)); Rose w the Fist (including Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Radical Party [Emma BONINO]); Together z the Union (including Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Green Federation [Alfonso PECORARO SCANIO]; United Consumers); Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Wlochy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Union of Democrats dla Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Republican European Movement or MRE [Luciana SBARBATI]


Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of Christian Democrats and Centrist Democrats or UDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Northern League or LEGA [Umberto BOSSI]; Christian Democracy (Per la Autonomie) [Gianfranco ROTONDI]


other non-allied parties: New Italian Socialist Party or New PSI [Gianni DE MICHELIS]; Italian Republican Party or PRI [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Social Alternative [Alessandra MUSSOLINI]; Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or MSI-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; Social Idea Movement z Rauti or MIS [Pino RAUTI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Union of Valley Aosta Region or UV [Guido CESAL]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNO], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
Ludnosc 58,147,733 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.01% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 19,460 km


standard gauge: 18,038 km 1.435-m gauge (11,354 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,299 km 0.950-m gauge (161 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 90% (approximately; about one-third regularly attend services), other 10% (includes mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.064 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.025 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.715 male(s)/female


total population: 0.959 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal (except w senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services


domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks


international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki and 2 dla Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and NA Eutelsat
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 25.049 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 71.5 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 6.7% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,400 km


note: used dla commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail (2006)
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