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Italy (2001)

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Italy 2001 year

Administrative divisions 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Age structure 0-14 years:
14.17% (male 4,209,102; female 3,964,765)

15-64 years:
67.48% (male 19,375,742; female 19,546,332)

65 years and over:
18.35% (male 4,368,264; female 6,215,620) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Airports 135 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
12 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
18 (2000 est.)
Area total:
301,230 sq km

294,020 sq km

7,210 sq km

includes Sardinia and Sicily
Area - comparative slightly larger than Arizona
Background Italy became a nation-state belatedly - in 1861 when the city-states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the European Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the more prosperous north.
Birth rate 9.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$488 billion

$501 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Rome
Climate predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Coastline 7,600 km
Constitution 1 January 1948
Country name conventional long form:
Italian Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Repubblica Italiana

local short form:

Kingdom of Italy
Currency Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)

on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Italy at a fixed rate of 1,936.27 Italian lire per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002
Death rate 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome

mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624

[39] (06) 46741

[39] (06) 488-2672

consulate(s) general:
Florence, Milan, Naples
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO

3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 612-4400

[1] (202) 518-2154

consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Disputes - international Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic minority rights
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.3 billion (1997)
Economy - overview Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with more than 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Since 1992, Italy has adopted budgets compliant with the requirements of the European Monetary Union (EMU); wage moderation agreements by representatives of government, labor, and employers have helped to bring Italy's inflation into conformity with EMU requirements. Italy's economic performance, however, has lagged behind that of its EU partners and it must work to stimulate employment, promote labor flexibility, reform its expensive pension system, and tackle the informal economy.
Electricity - consumption 272.35 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 530 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 42.539 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 247.679 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



2.83% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) 4,807 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,688.7 (January 1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)

head of government:
Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 June 2001)

Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president

president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament

election results:
Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%

a 12-party government coalition; note - BERLUSCONI's coalition includes Forza Italian, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Center, Christian Northern League
Exports 530 million kWh (1999)
Exports $241.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals and nonferrous metals
Exports - partners EU 56.8% (Germany 16.4%, France 12.9%, Netherlands 7.1%, Spain 6.3%, Netherlands 2.9%), US 9.5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.273 trillion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


67.1% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $22,100 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.7% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 42 50 N, 12 50 E
Geography - note strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Heliports 4 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
654,676 km

654,676 km (including 6460 km of expressways)

0 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
21.8% (1995)
Illicit drugs important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market
Imports 42.539 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $231.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners EU 61% (Germany 19.3%, France 12.6%, Netherlands 6.3%, Spain 4.4%), US 5.0% (1999)
Independence 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
Industrial production growth rate 1.9% (2000)
Industries tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Infant mortality rate 5.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.5% (2000)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 93 (Italy and Holy See) (2000)
Irrigated land 27,100 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
Labor force 23.4 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation services 61.9%, industry 32.6%, agriculture 5.5% (1999)
Land boundaries total:
1,932.2 km

border countries:
Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

21% (1993 est.)
Languages Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Legal system based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats elected by popular vote of which 232 are directly elected and 83 are elected by regional proportional representation plus, in addition, there are a small number of senators-for-life including former presidents of the republic; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional representation; members serve five-year terms)

Senate - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 177 (Forza Italia 82, National Alliance 46, CCD-CDU 29, Northern League 17, others 3), Olive Tree 128 (Democrats of the Left 62, Daisy Alliance 42, Sunflower Alliance 16, Italian Communist Party 3, independents 5), non-affiliated with either coalition 10, senators for life 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 367 (Forza Italia 189, National Alliance 96, CCD-CDU 40, Northern League 30, others 12), Olive Tree 248 (Democrats of the Left 138, Daisy Alliance 76, Sunflower Alliance 18, Italian Communist Party 9, independents 7), non-affiliated with either coalition 15
Life expectancy at birth total population:
79.14 years

75.97 years

82.52 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
98% (1998)


Location Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
445 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,005,136 GRT/10,556,244 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 44, cargo 41, chemical tanker 77, combination ore/oil 4, container 24, liquefied gas 38, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 11, petroleum tanker 85, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 64, short-sea passenger 26, specialized tanker 14, vehicle carrier 15 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Military expenditures - dollar figure $20.7 billion (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.7% (FY00/01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
14,248,674 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
12,244,166 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
304,369 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
Natural resources mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land
Net migration rate 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Political parties and leaders Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco RUTELLI] - Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats), Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party; Christian Democratic Center or CDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Rocco BUTTIGLIONE]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Green Federation [Grazia FRANCESCATO]; House of Liberties (formerly Freedom Alliance, a center-right coalition) [leader Silvio BERLUSCONI] - Forza Italian, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Center, Christian Democratic Union, Northern League; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Italian Democratic Socialists [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Popular Party [Pierluigi CASTAGNETTI]; Italian Renewal [Lamberto DINI]; Italian Social Movement-Tricolored Flame or MSI-FI [Pino RAUTI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Radical Party (formerly Panella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco PANNELLA]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried BRUGGER]; Union of Democrats for Europe [Clemente MASTELLA]; The Democrats [Arturo PARISI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio COFFERATI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Sergio D'ANTONI] which is Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro LARIZZA] which is lay centrist)
Population 57,679,825 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.07% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Augusta (Sicily), Bagnoli, Bari, Brindisi, Gela, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Milazzo, Naples, Porto Foxi, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Salerno, Savona, Taranto, Trieste, Venice (2001)
Radio broadcast stations AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)
Radios 50.5 million (1997)
Railways total:
19,394 km

standard gauge:
18,071 km 1.435-m gauge; Italian Railways (FS) operates 16,014 km of the total standard gauge routes (11,322 km electrified)

narrow gauge:
112 km 1.000-m gauge (112 km electrified); 1,211 km 0.950-m gauge (153 km electrified) (1998)
Religions predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.7 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)
Telephone system general assessment:
modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 25 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 20.5 million (1999)
Television broadcast stations 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Total fertility rate 1.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.4% (2000 est.)
Waterways 2,400 km

for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value
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