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Italy (2002)

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Italy 2002 year

Administrative divisions 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.1% (male 4,198,569; female 3,954,159)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 19,334,208; female 19,492,048)

65 years and over: 18.6% (male 4,436,073; female 6,300,568) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Airports 135 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 96

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 34

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 18 (2002)
Area total: 301,230 sq km

land: 294,020 sq km

water: 7,210 sq km

note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
Area - comparative slightly larger than Arizona
Background Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the city-states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the European Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north.
Birth rate 8.93 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $504 billion

expenditures: $517 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Rome
Climate predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Coastline 7,600 km
Constitution 1 January 1948
Country name conventional long form: Italian Republic

conventional short form: Italy

local long form: Repubblica Italiana

local short form: Italia

former: Kingdom of Italy
Currency euro (EUR); Italian lira (ITL)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Melvin SEMBLER

embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome

mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624

telephone: [39] (06) 46741

FAX: [39] (06) 488-2672, 4674-2356

consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO

chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400

FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Detroit
Disputes - international Croatia and Italy are still trying to resolve bilateral property and ethnic minority rights dating from World War II
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1 billion (2002 est.)
Economy - overview Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. The current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. Rome has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and over-generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions.
Electricity - consumption 283.74 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 484 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 44.831 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 257.41 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 80%

hydro: 17%

nuclear: 0%

other: 3% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
Environment - current issues air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,688.7 (January 1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 June 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president

elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by Parliament

election results: Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%

note: a five-party government coalition includes Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, Democratic Christian Center, United Christian Democrats
Exports 484 million kWh (2000)
Exports $259.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals and nonferrous metals
Exports - partners EU 53.8% (Germany 14.5%, France 12.2%, UK 6.7%, Spain 6.1%), US 9.7% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

note: inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.438 trillion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2%

industry: 30%

services: 68% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 42 50 N, 12 50 E
Geography - note strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Heliports 4 (2002)
Highways total: 668,669 km

paved: 668,669 km (including 6,460 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 27% (2000)
Illicit drugs important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
Imports 44.831 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $238.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners EU 56.5% (Germany 17.7%, France 11.1%, Netherlands 6.2%, UK 5.1%), US 4.9% (2001)
Independence 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
Industrial production growth rate -2.8% (2002)
Industries tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Infant mortality rate 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.4% (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 93 (Italy and Holy See) (2000)
Irrigated land 26,980 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
Labor force 23.6 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 63%, industry 32%, agriculture 5% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 1,932.2 km

border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km
Land use arable land: 28.07%

permanent crops: 9.25%

other: 62.68% (1998 est.)
Languages Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Legal system based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats elected by popular vote of which 232 are directly elected and 83 are elected by regional proportional representation; in addition, there are a small number of senators-for-life including former presidents of the republic; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional representation; members serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 177 (Forza Italia 82, National Alliance 46, CCD-CDU 29, Northern League 17, others 3), Olive Tree 128 (Democrats of the Left 62, Daisy Alliance 42, Sunflower Alliance 16, Italian Communist Party 3, independents 5), non-affiliated with either coalition 10, senators for life 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 367 (Forza Italia 189, National Alliance 96, CCD-CDU 40, Northern League 30, others 12), Olive Tree 248 (Democrats of the Left 138, Daisy Alliance 76, Sunflower Alliance 18, Italian Communist Party 9, independents 7), non-affiliated with either coalition 15
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.25 years

male: 76.08 years

female: 82.63 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98% (1998)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 467 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,499,248 GRT/10,383,988 DWT

ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 41, chemical tanker 91, combination ore/oil 4, container 24, liquefied gas 37, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 15, petroleum tanker 80, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 70, short-sea passenger 27, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 16

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Denmark 4, France 1, Greece 3, Man, Isle of 1, Monaco 7, Netherlands 6, Norway 1, Panama 2, Spain 1, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 15, Turkey 1, United Kingdom 6, United States 12 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri
Military expenditures - dollar figure $20.2 billion (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.64% (2002)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 14,184,307 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 12,157,753 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 304,369 (2002 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Nationality noun: Italian(s)

adjective: Italian
Natural hazards regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
Natural resources mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land
Net migration rate 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km
Political parties and leaders Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco RUTELLI] - Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats), Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party; Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly House of Liberties and Freedom Alliance) - Forza Italia, National Alliance, The Whiteflower Alliance (includes Christian Democratic Center, United Christian Democrats), Northern League; Christian Democratic Center or CCD [Marco FOLLINI]; Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Green Federation [Alfonso Pecoraro SCANIO]; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Italian Popular Party or PPI [Pierluigi CASTAGNETTI]; Italian Renewal or RI [Lamberto DINI]; Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Socialist Movement-Tricolor Flame or MS-Fiamma [Pino RAUTI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried BRUGGER]; Sunflower Alliance (includes Green Federation, Italian Social Democrats); The Daisy Alliance (includes Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats); The Democrats [Arturo PARISI]; The Radicals (formerly Pannella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco PANNELLA]; The Whiteflower Alliance (includes Christian Democratic Center, United Christian Democrats); Union of Democrats for Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; United Christian Democrats or CDU [Rocco BUTTIGLIONE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio COFFERATI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA] which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro LARIZZA] which is lay centrist)
Population 57,715,625 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.05% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Augusta (Sicily), Bagnoli, Bari, Brindisi, Gela, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Milazzo, Naples, Porto Foxi, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Salerno, Savona, Taranto, Trieste, Venice (2001)
Radio broadcast stations AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)
Radios 50.5 million (1997)
Railways total: 19,786 km

standard gauge: 18,761 km 1.435-m gauge (11,251 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 113 km 1.000-m gauge (113 km electrified); 912 km 0.950-m gauge (192 km electrified) (2001)
Religions predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)
Telephone system general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 25 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 20.5 million (1999)
Television broadcast stations 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Total fertility rate 1.19 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.1% (2002 est.)
Waterways 2,400 km

note: serves various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value (2002)
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