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Wietnam (2008)

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Wietnam 2008 roku

 Wietnam
Podzial administracyjny 59 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)


provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai


municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.3% (male 11,617,032/female 10,784,264)


15-64 years: 67.9% (male 28,711,464/female 29,205,498)


65 years and over: 5.8% (male 1,919,138/female 3,024,960) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo paddy rice, coffee, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood
Lotniska 44 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 37


over 3,047 m: 9


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 7


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Terytorium total: 329,560 sq km


land: 325,360 sq km


water: 4,200 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than New Meksyk
Tlo historyczne The conquest of Wietnam by Francja began w 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina w 1887. Wietnam declared independence after Swiat War II, but Francja continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Wietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Wietnam grew through the 1960s w an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement w 1973. Two years later, North Wietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, dla over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies. However, since the enactment of Wietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy w 1986, Wietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The country continues to experience protests from various groups - such as the Protestant Montagnard ethnic minority population of the Central Highlands and the Hoa Hao Buddhists w southern Wietnam over religious persecution. Montagnard grievances also include the loss of land to Wietnamese settlers.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 16.63 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $18.28 billion


expenditures: $19.79 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Hanoi


geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E


time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical w south; monsoonal w north z hot, rainy season (maj to wrzesien) and warm, dry season (pazdziernik to marzec)
Linia brzegowa 3,444 km (excludes islands)
Konstytucja 15 kwiecien 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Wietnam


conventional short form: Wietnam


local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam


local short form: Viet Nam


abbreviation: SRV
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $24.41 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. MICHALAK


embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [84] (4) 850-5000


FAX: [84] (4) 850-5010


consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (Appointed) Le Cong PHUNG


chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737


FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917


consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Laos protest Wietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; an estimated 300,000 Wietnamese refugees reside w Chiny; establishment of a maritime boundary z Kambodza is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; Chiny occupies the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wietnam continues to expand construction of facilities w the Wyspy Spratly; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $5.4 billion w credits and grants pledged by the 2007 Consultative Group meeting w Hanoi (2007)
Ekonomia Wietnam is a densely-populated developing country that w the last 30 years has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Economic stagnation marked the period after reunification from 1975 to 1985. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress approved a broad economic reform package that introduced market reforms and set the groundwork dla Wietnam's improved investment climate. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1997 w moving forward from an extremely low level of development and significantly reducing poverty. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems w the Wietnamese economy and temporarily allowed opponents of reform to slow progress toward a market-oriented economy. Produkt krajowy brutto growth averaged 6.8% per year from 1997 to 2004 even against the background of the Asian financial crisis and a global recession. Since 2001, Wietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and international integration. They have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The economy grew 8.5% w 2007. Wietnam's membership w the ASEAN Free Trade Terytorium (AFTA) and entry into force of the US-Wietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement w grudzien 2001 have led to even more rapid changes w Wietnam's trade and economic regime. Wietnam's exports to the US increased 900% from 2001 to 2007. Wietnam joined the WTO w styczen 2007, following over a decade long negotiation process. WTO membership has provided Wietnam an anchor to the global market and reinforced the domestic economic reform process. Among other benefits, accession allows Wietnam to take advantage of the phase-out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing dla WTO partners on 1 styczen 2005. Agriculture's share of economic output has continued to shrink, from about 25% w 2000 to less than 20% w 2007. Deep poverty, defined as a percent of the population living under $1 per day, has declined significantly and is now smaller than that of Chiny, Indie, and the Filipiny. Wietnam is working to create jobs to meet the challenge of a labor force that is growing by more than one-and-a-half million people every year. In an effort to stem high inflation which took off w 2007, early w 2008 Wietnamese authorities began to raise benchmark interest rates and reserve requirements. Hanoi is targeting an economic growth rate of 7.5-8% during the next four years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 51.35 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 59.01 billion kWh (2007)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: South Chiny Sea 0 m


highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment w Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census)
Kurs waluty dong per US dollar - 16,119 (2007), 15,983 (2006), 15,746 (2005), NA (2004), 15,510 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 czerwiec 2006); Vice President Nguyen Thi DOAN (since 25 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 czerwiec 2006); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 czerwiec 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 sierpien 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien NHAN (since 2 sierpien 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 czerwiec 2006), and Deputy Prime Minister Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members dla five-year term; last held 27 czerwiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly


election results: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92%
Eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Eksport $48.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Eksport 315,700 bbl/day (2007)
Eksport - towary crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
Eksport - partnerzy US 21.2%, Japonia 12.3%, Australia 9.4%, Chiny 5.7%, Niemcy 4.5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 19.4%


industry: 42.3%


services: 38.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 16 00 N, 106 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.9%


highest 10%: 28.9% (2004)
Narkotyki minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point dla Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns
Import 0 kWh (2007)
Import $60.75 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2007)
Import 271,100 bbl/day (2007)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
Import - partnerzy Chiny 17.7%, Singapur 12.9%, Tajwan 11.5%, Japonia 9.8%, South Korea 8.4%, Tajlandia 7.3%, Malezja 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 2 wrzesien 1945 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 17.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, paper
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 24.37 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 24.76 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 23.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT (observer), ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 30,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected dla a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Sila robocza 45.73 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 55.6%


industry: 18.9%


services: 25.5% (lipiec 2005)
Granica total: 4,639 km


border countries: Kambodza 1,228 km, Chiny 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 20.14%


permanent crops: 6.93%


other: 72.93% (2005)
Jezyki Wietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
System prawny based on communist legal theory and French civil law system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 20 maj 2007 (next to be held w maj 2012)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 450, non-party CPV-approved 42, self-nominated 1; note - 493 candidates were elected; CPV and non-party CPV-approved delegates were members of the Wietnamese Fatherland Front
Zywotnosc total population: 71.07 years


male: 68.27 years


female: 74.08 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.3%


male: 93.9%


female: 86.9% (2002 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Tajlandia, Gulf of Tonkin, and South Chiny Sea, alongside Chiny, Laos, and Kambodza
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 314 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,739,927 GRT/2,681,003 DWT


by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 26, cargo 238, chemical tanker 7, container 6, liquefied gas 6, petroleum tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1


registered w other countries: 33 (Antigua i Barbuda 1, Honduras 1, South Korea 1, Liberia 3, Mongolia 14, Panama 10, Tuvalu 3, unknown 2) (2007)
Wojsko People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Wietnam (PAVN) (includes People's Navy Command (with naval infantry, coast guard), Air and Air Defense Force (Kon Quan Nhan Dan), Border Defense Command), People's Public Security Forces, Militia Force, Self-Defense Forces (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 2 wrzesien (1945)
Narodowosc noun: Wietnamese (singular and plural)


adjective: Wietnamese
Naturalne zagrozenia occasional typhoons (maj to styczen) z extensive flooding, especially w the Mekong River delta
Surowce naturalne phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 432 km; gas 510 km; oil 49 km; refined products 206 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Communist Party of Wietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]; other parties proscribed
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by government - 8406 Bloc; Democratic Party of Wietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Wietnam or PDP-VN; Alliance dla Democracy (2006)
Ludnosc 85,262,356 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 14.75% (2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.004% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,600 km


standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge


dual gauge: 253 km three-rail track combining 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (2006)
Religie Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.077 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.983 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.634 male(s)/female


total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Wietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors


domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly


international: country code - 84; a landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Tajlandia-Wietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, scheduled dla completion by the end of 2008, will provide new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 10.8 million (2007)
Telefony komorkowe 33.2 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 6 (plus 61 provincial TV stations) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu low, flat delta w south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous w far north and northwest
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 17,702 km (5,000 km navigable by vessels up to 1.8 m draft) (2005)
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