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Vietnam (2004)

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Vietnam 2004 year

Administrative divisions 59 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thu do, singular and plural)

provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Hai Duong, Ha Nam, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai

municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.4% (male 12,524,098; female 11,807,763)

15-64 years: 65% (male 26,475,156; female 27,239,543)

65 years and over: 5.6% (male 1,928,568; female 2,714,390) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas, sugar; poultry, pigs, fish
Airports 19 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 16

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Area total: 329,560 sq km

land: 325,360 sq km

water: 4,200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than New Mexico
Background The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Independence was declared after World War II, but the French continued to rule until 1954 when they were defeated by Communist forces under Ho Chi Minh, who took control of the North. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South. Despite the return of peace, for over two decades the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies. Since 2001, Vietnamese authorities have committed to economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The country continues to experience protests from the Montagnard ethnic minority population of the Central Highlands over loss of land to Vietnamese settlers and religious persecution.
Birth rate 19.58 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.689 billion

expenditures: $9.718 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (2003 est.)
Capital Hanoi
Climate tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Coastline 3,444 km (excludes islands)
Constitution 15 April 1992
Country name conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam

conventional short form: Vietnam

local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam

local short form: Viet Nam

abbreviation: SRV
Currency dong (VND)
Death rate 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $14.69 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. MARINE

embassy: 7 Lang Ha Road, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [84] (4) 772-1500

FAX: [84] (4) 772-1510

consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nguyen Tam Chien

chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737

FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917

consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Disputes - international demarcation of the land boundary with China continues, but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unimplemented; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; involved in complex dispute with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Economic aid - recipient $2.8 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 2000 (2004)
Economy - overview Vietnam is a poor, densely-populated country that has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1996 in moving forward from an extremely low starting point - growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems in the Vietnamese economy, but rather than prompting reform, reaffirmed the government's belief that shifting to a market-oriented economy would lead to disaster. GDP growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in 1998 and 5% in 1999. Growth then rose to 6% to 7% in 2000-02 even against the background of global recession. These numbers mask some major difficulties in economic performance. Many domestic industries, including coal, cement, steel, and paper, have reported large stockpiles of inventory and tough competition from more efficient foreign producers. Since the Party elected new leadership in 2001, Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The US-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement entered into force near the end of 2001 and is expected to significantly increase Vietnam's exports to the US. The US is assisting Vietnam with implementing the legal and structural reforms called for in the agreement.
Electricity - consumption 27.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 29.8 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
Environment - current issues logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese, Hmong, Thai, Khmer, Cham, mountain groups
Exchange rates dong per US dollar - 15,279.5 (2003), 15,279.5 (2002), 14,725.2 (2001), 14,167.7 (2000), 13,943.2 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Tran Duc Luong (since 24 September 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van Khai (since 25 September 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung (since 29 September 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Vu Khoan (8 August 2002) and Pham Gia Khiem (since 29 September 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister and ratification of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for a five-year term; election last held 25 July 2002 (next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative elections in 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister

election results: Tran Duc Luong elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $19.88 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
Exports - partners US 21.9%, Japan 13.8%, Australia 6.8%, China 6.5%, Germany 5.8%, Singapore 4.6%, UK 4.4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $203.7 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 21.8%

industry: 39.7%

services: 38.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.2% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 106 00 E
Geography - note extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
Highways total: 93,300 km

paved: 23,418 km

unpaved: 69,882 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 29.9% (1998)
Illicit drugs minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $22.5 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
Imports - partners China 13.7%, Taiwan 11.4%, Japan 11.3%, South Korea 11%, Singapore 10.4%, US 5.7%, Thailand 5.4%, Hong Kong 4.2% (2003)
Independence 2 September 1945 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 16% (2003 est.)
Industries food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper
Infant mortality rate total: 29.88 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 33.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 30,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Labor force 45.74 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 63%, industry and services 37% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,639 km

border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
Land use arable land: 19.97%

permanent crops: 5.95%

other: 74.08% (2001)
Languages Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Legal system based on communist legal theory and French civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (498 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 19 May 2002 (next to be held 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 90%, other 10% (the 10% are not CPV members but are approved by the CPV to stand for election); seats by party - CPV 447, CPV-approved 51
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.35 years

male: 67.86 years

female: 73.02 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.3%

male: 93.9%

female: 86.9% (2002)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 194 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,170,621 GRT/1,798,376 DWT

by type: bulk 16, cargo 135, chemical tanker 1, container 8, liquefied gas 4, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: Cambodia 1, Germany 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, United Kingdom 3

registered in other countries: 11 (2004 est.)
Military branches People's Army of Vietnam: Ground Forces, People's Navy Command (including Naval Infantry), Air and Air Defense Force, Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $650 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.5% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 23,438,858 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 14,694,574 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 853,197 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Nationality noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)

adjective: Vietnamese
Natural hazards occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
Natural resources phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines condensate/gas 432 km; gas 210 km; oil 3 km; refined products 206 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc Manh, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 82,689,518 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 37% (1998 est.)
Population growth rate 1.3% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau
Radio broadcast stations AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
Railways total: 2,600 km

standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge

dual gauge: 253 km three-rail track combining 1.435-m and 1.000-m gauges (2003)
Religions Buddhist, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestant), indigenous beliefs, Muslim
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors

domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly

international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 4.402 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.742 million (2003)
Television broadcast stations at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998)
Terrain low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Total fertility rate 2.22 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.1% (2003 est.)
Waterways 17,702 km (5,000 km navigable by vessels up to 1.8 m draft) (2004)
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