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Vietnam (2001)

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Vietnam 2001 year

Administrative divisions 58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thu do, singular and plural); An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Da Nang, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Hai Duong, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh, Ho Chi Minh*, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
Age structure 0-14 years:
32.13% (male 13,266,585; female 12,415,384)

15-64 years:
62.44% (male 24,357,343; female 25,556,187)

65 years and over:
5.43% (male 1,722,094; female 2,621,421) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas, sugar; poultry, pigs; fish
Airports 34 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
8 (2000 est.)
Area total:
329,560 sq km

325,360 sq km

4,200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than New Mexico
Background France occupied all of Vietnam by 1884. Independence was declared after World War II, but the French continued to rule until 1954 when they were defeated by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH, who took control of the north. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the south. Economic reconstruction of the reunited country has proven difficult as aging Communist Party leaders have only grudgingly initiated reforms necessary for a free market.
Birth rate 21.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$5.3 billion

$5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (1999 est.)
Capital Hanoi
Climate tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Coastline 3,444 km (excludes islands)
Constitution 15 April 1992
Country name conventional long form:
Socialist Republic of Vietnam

conventional short form:

local long form:
Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam

local short form:
Viet Nam

Currency dong (VND)
Death rate 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $13.2 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Douglas B. "Pete" PETERSON

7 Lang Ha Road, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi

mailing address:
PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002

[84] (4) 8431500

[84] (4) 8351510

consulate(s) general:
Ho Chi Minh City
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Nguyen Tam CHIEN

1233 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 400

[1] (202) 861-0737

[1] (202) 861-0917

consulate(s) general:
San Francisco
Disputes - international maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary agreement with China in the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; portions of boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; agreement on land border with China was signed in December 1999, but details of alignment have not yet been made public
Economic aid - recipient $2.1 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 2000
Economy - overview Vietnam is a poor, densely populated country that has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1996 in moving forward from an extremely low starting point - growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems existing in the Vietnamese economy but, rather than prompting reform, reaffirmed the government's belief that shifting to a market oriented economy leads to disaster. GDP growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in 1998 and 5% in 1999. Growth continued at the moderately strong level of 5.5%, a level that should be matched in 2001. These numbers mask some major difficulties in economic performance. Many domestic industries, including coal, cement, steel, and paper, have reported large stockpiles of inventory and tough competition from more efficient foreign producers; this problem apparently eased in 2000. Foreign direct investment fell dramatically, from $8.3 billion in 1996 to about $1.6 billion in 1999. Meanwhile, Vietnamese authorities have moved slowly in implementing the structural reforms needed to revitalize the economy and produce more competitive, export-driven industries.
Electricity - consumption 21.376 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 22.985 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
South China Sea 0 m

highest point:
Ngoc Linh 3,143 m
Environment - current issues logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese, Hmong, Thai, Khmer, Cham, mountain groups
Exchange rates dong per US dollar - 14,530 (January 2001), 14,020 (January 2000), 13,900 (December 1998), 11,100 (December 1996), 11,193 (1995 average), 11,000 (October 1994)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Tran Duc LUONG (since 24 September 1997) and Vice President Nguyen Thi BINH (since NA October 1992)

head of government:
Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen Cong TAN (since 29 September 1997), Nguyen Manh CAM (since 29 September 1997), and Pham Gia KHIEM (since 29 September 1997)

Cabinet appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister and ratification of the National Assembly

president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for a five-year term; election last held 25 September 1997 (next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative elections in NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister

election results:
Tran Duc LUONG elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
Exports - partners China, Japan, Germany, Australia, US, France, Singapore, UK, Taiwan
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $154.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


40% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,950 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 106 00 E
Highways total:
93,300 km

23,418 km

69,882 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
29% (1993)
Illicit drugs minor producer of opium poppy with 2,100 hectares cultivated in 1999, capable of producing 11 metric tons of opium; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $15.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
Imports - partners Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, France, US, Sweden
Independence 2 September 1945 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 10.7% (2000 est.)
Industries food processing, garments, shoes, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper
Infant mortality rate 30.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.6% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2000)
Irrigated land 18,600 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Labor force 38.2 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 67%, industry and services 33% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total:
4,639 km

border countries:
Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

48% (1993 est.)
Languages Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Legal system based on communist legal theory and French civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (450 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 20 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - CPV 92%, other 8% (the 8% are not CPV members but are approved by the CPV to stand for election); seats by party - CPV or CPV-approved 450
Life expectancy at birth total population:
69.56 years

67.12 years

72.19 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


91.2% (1995 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
143 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 705,388 GRT/1,071,902 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 8, cargo 108, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3 (2000 est.)
Military branches People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (includes Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force), Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $650 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.5% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
21,704,588 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
13,673,438 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
961,124 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Nationality noun:
Vietnamese (singular and plural)

Natural hazards occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding
Natural resources phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 150 km
Political parties and leaders only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Le Kha PHIEU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 79,939,014 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 37% (1998 est.)
Population growth rate 1.45% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau
Radio broadcast stations AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
Radios 8.2 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,652 km

standard gauge:
166 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
2,249 km 1.000-m gauge

dual gauge:
237 km NA-m gauges (three rails) (1998)
Religions Buddhist, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestant), indigenous beliefs, Muslim
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.66 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors

all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; since 1991, main lines in use have been substantially increased and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly

satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.6 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 730,155 (2000)
Television broadcast stations at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998)
Terrain low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Total fertility rate 2.49 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 25% (1995 est.)
Waterways 17,702 km

more than 5,149 km are navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 m draft
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