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Vanuatu (2008)

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Vanuatu 2008 year

Administrative divisions 6 provinces; Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa, Tafea, Torba
Age structure 0-14 years: 31.9% (male 34,590/female 33,124)

15-64 years: 64.3% (male 69,496/female 66,745)

65 years and over: 3.8% (male 4,178/female 3,838) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams, fruits, vegetables; beef; fish
Airports 31 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 28

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 22 (2007)
Area total: 12,200 sq km

land: 12,200 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes more than 80 islands, about 65 of which are inhabited
Area - comparative slightly larger than Connecticut
Background Multiple waves of colonizers, each speaking a distinct language, migrated to the New Hebrides in the millennia preceding European exploration in the 18th century. This settlement pattern accounts for the complex linguistic diversity found on the archipelago to this day. The British and French, who settled the New Hebrides in the 19th century, agreed in 1906 to an Anglo-French Condominium, which administered the islands until independence in 1980, when the new name of Vanuatu was adopted.
Birth rate 22.35 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $78.7 million

expenditures: $72.23 million (2005)
Capital name: Port-Vila (on Efate)

geographic coordinates: 17 44 S, 168 19 E

time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April
Coastline 2,528 km
Constitution 30 July 1980
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Vanuatu

conventional short form: Vanuatu

local long form: Ripablik blong Vanuatu

local short form: Vanuatu

former: New Hebrides
Death rate 7.75 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $81.2 million (2004)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Vanuatu; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu
Diplomatic representation in the US Vanuatu does not have an embassy in the US; it does, however, have a Permanent Mission to the UN
Disputes - international Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by Vanuatu and France
Economic aid - recipient $39.48 million (2005)
Economy - overview This South Pacific island economy is based primarily on small-scale agriculture, which provides a living for 65% of the population. Fishing, offshore financial services, and tourism, with more than 60,000 visitors in 2005, are other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties. Economic development is hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports, vulnerability to natural disasters, and long distances from main markets and between constituent islands. In response to foreign concerns, the government has promised to tighten regulation of its offshore financial center. In mid-2002 the government stepped up efforts to boost tourism through improved air connections, resort development, and cruise ship facilities. Agriculture, especially livestock farming, is a second target for growth. Australia and New Zealand are the main suppliers of tourists and foreign aid.
Electricity - consumption 38.13 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 41 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Tabwemasana 1,877 m
Environment - current issues a majority of the population does not have access to a reliable supply of potable water; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Ni-Vanuatu 98.5%, other 1.5% (1999 Census)
Exchange rates vatu per US dollar - NA (2007), 111.93 (2006), NA (2005), 111.79 (2004), 122.19 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Kalkot Matas KELEKELE (since 16 August 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Ham LINI (since 11 December 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Sato KILMAN (since 11 December 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils; election for president last held 16 August 2004 (next to be held in 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held 29 July 2004 (next to be held following general elections in 2008)

election results: Kalkot Matas KELEKELE elected president, with 49 votes out of 56, after several ballots on 16 August 2004
Exports 0 kWh (2005 est.)
Exports $40 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities copra, beef, cocoa, timber, kava, coffee
Exports - partners Thailand 59.6%, India 16.8%, Japan 11.5% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 26%

industry: 12%

services: 62% (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.8% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 S, 167 00 E
Geography - note a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active volcanoes
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $156 million c.i.f. (2006)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 628.5 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, fuels
Imports - partners Australia 20.6%, Japan 19.7%, Singapore 12.1%, NZ 8.8%, Fiji 7.7%, China 7.4%, New Caledonia 4.3% (2006)
Independence 30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
Industrial production growth rate 1% (1997 est.)
Industries food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Infant mortality rate total: 52.45 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 54.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 49.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -1.6% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, ADB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
Labor force 76,410 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 6.97%

other: 91.39% (2005)
Languages local languages (more than 100) 72.6%, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 23.1%, English 1.9%, French 1.4%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.7% (1999 Census)
Legal system unified system being created from former dual French and British systems
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (52 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 6 July 2004 (next to be held 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NUP 10, UMP 8, VP 8, VRP 4, MPP 3, VGP 3, other and independent 16; note - political party associations are fluid

note: the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of culture and language
Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.22 years

male: 61.67 years

female: 64.84 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74%

male: NA

female: NA (1999 census)
Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 51 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,346,001 GRT/1,901,055 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 30, cargo 8, container 1, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 5

foreign-owned: 51 (Australia 2, Belgium 4, Canada 5, Estonia 1, Japan 28, Poland 7, Russia 1, Switzerland 2, US 1) (2007)
Military branches no regular military forces; Vanuatu Police Force (VPF), Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF; includes Police Maritime Wing (PMW)) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Nationality noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)

adjective: Ni-Vanuatu
Natural hazards tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanic eruption on Aoba (Ambae) island began 27 November 2005, volcanism also causes minor earthquakes; tsunamis
Natural resources manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Jon Frum Movement [Song KEASPAI]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; National United Party or NUP [Hem LINI]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Greens Party or VGP [Moana CARCASSES]; Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 211,971 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.46% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Religions Presbyterian 31.4%, Anglican 13.4%, Roman Catholic 13.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, other Christian 13.8%, indigenous beliefs 5.6% (including Jon Frum cargo cult), other 9.6%, none 1%, unspecified 1.3% (1999 Census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.041 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.089 male(s)/female

total population: 1.044 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 7,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12,700 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2004)
Terrain mostly mountainous islands of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Total fertility rate 2.63 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 1.7% (1999)
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