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Urugwaj (2008)

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Urugwaj 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 23% (male 403,745/female 390,623)

15-64 years: 63.8% (male 1,096,225/female 1,112,568)

65 years and over: 13.2% (male 184,303/female 273,143) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, soybeans, barley; livestock, beef; fish; forestry
Lotniska 60 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 51

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Terytorium total: 176,220 sq km

land: 173,620 sq km

water: 2,600 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Tlo historyczne Montevideo, founded by the Spanish w 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentyna but annexed by Brazylia w 1821, Urugwaj declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom w 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE w the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched w the late 1960s, led Urugwaj's president to cede control of the government to the military w 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Urugwaj's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 14.41 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $6.6 billion

expenditures: $6.3 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Montevideo

geographic coordinates: 34 53 S, 56 11 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday w pazdziernik; ends second Sunday w marzec
Klimat warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Linia brzegowa 660 km
Konstytucja 27 listopad 1966, effective 15 luty 1967; suspended 27 czerwiec 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 listopad 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 listopad 1989 and 7 styczen 1997
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Urugwaj

conventional short form: Urugwaj

local long form: Republica Oriental del Urugwaj

local short form: Urugwaj

former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.16 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $12 billion (30 wrzesien 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Frank BAXTER

embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200

mailing address: APO AA 34035

telephone: [598] (2) 418-7777

FAX: [598] (2) 418-8611
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois

chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316

FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

consulate(s): San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in Jan 2007, ICJ provisionally ruled Urugwaj may begin construction of two paper mills on the Urugwaj River, which forms the border z Argentyna, while the court examines further whether Argentyna has the legal right to stop such construction z potential environmental implications to both countries; uncontested dispute z Brazylia over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $14.62 million (2005)
Ekonomia Urugwaj's economy is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually during 1996-98, w 1999-2002 the economy suffered a major downturn, stemming largely from the spillover effects of the economic problems of its large neighbors, Argentyna and Brazylia. For instance, w 2001-02 Argentyna made massive withdrawals of dollars deposited w Urugwajan banks, which led to a plunge w the Urugwajan peso and a massive rise w unemployment. Total Produkt krajowy brutto w these four years dropped by nearly 20%, z 2002 the worst year due to the banking crisis. The unemployment rate rose to nearly 20% w 2002, inflation surged, and the burden of external debt doubled. Cooperation z the IMF helped stem the damage. Urugwaj w 2007 improved its debt profile by paying off $1.1 billion w IMF debt, and continues to follow the orthodox economic plan set by the Fund w 2005. The construction of a pulp mill w Fray Bentos, which represents the largest foreign direct investment w Urugwaj's history at $1.2 billion, came online w listopad 2007 and is expected to add 1.6% to Produkt krajowy brutto and boost already rising exports. The economy has grown strongly since 2004 as a result of high commodity prices dla Urugwajan exports, a strong peso, growth w the region, and low international interest rates.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.03 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 780 million kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 9.2 billion kWh (2007)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m

highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Kurs waluty Urugwajan pesos per US dollar - 23.947 (2007), 24.048 (2006), 24.479 (2005), 28.704 (2004), 28.209 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 marzec 2005); Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 marzec 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 marzec 2005); Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 marzec 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president z parliamentary approval

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 31 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2009)

election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.5%, Jorge LARRANAGA 35.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; other 4.1%
Eksport 1 billion kWh (2007)
Eksport $4.5 billion f.o.b. (2007)
Eksport 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Eksport 4,410 bbl/day (2007)
Eksport - towary meat, rice, leather products, wool, fish, dairy products
Eksport - partnerzy Brazylia 15.1%, US 12.1%, Argentyna 6.8%, Meksyk 6.4%, Chiny 6%, Niemcy 5%, Rosja 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating z blue; there is a white square w the upper hoist-side corner z a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of maj z 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 9.2%

industry: 33%

services: 57.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 S, 56 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne second-smallest South American country (after Surinam); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal dla cattle and sheep raising
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 34% (2003)
Import 780 million kWh (2007)
Import $5.5 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 116.9 million cu m (2007)
Import 43,670 bbl/day (2007)
Import - towary crude petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, chemicals, road vehicles, paper, plastics
Import - partnerzy Argentyna 20.4%, Brazylia 17.1%, US 8.2%, Paragwaj 7.2%, Chiny 6.9%, Wenezuela 4.8%, Nigeria 4.4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 25 sierpien 1825 (from Brazylia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 12.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.5% (2007)
Nawadniane tereny 2,100 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected dla 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Sila robocza 1.5 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 9%

industry: 15%

services: 76% (2007 est.)
Granica total: 1,648 km

border countries: Argentyna 580 km, Brazylia 1,068 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 7.77%

permanent crops: 0.24%

other: 91.99% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish, Portunol, or Brazyliaero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazyliaian frontier)
System prawny based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; vice president has one vote w the Senate) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held pazdziernik 2009); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held pazdziernik 2009)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - EP-FA 16, Blanco 11, Colorado Party 3; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - EP-FA 52, Blanco 36, Colorado Party 10, Independent Party 1
Zywotnosc total population: 75.93 years

male: 72.68 years

female: 79.3 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 97.6%

female: 98.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern South America, bordering the South Ocean Atlantycki, between Argentyna and Brazylia
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 14 ships (1000 GRT or over) 36,041 GRT/22,274 DWT

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 4 (Argentyna 3, Grecja 1)

registered w other countries: 7 (Argentyna 1, Bahamas 1, Liberia 3, Hiszpania 2) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes naval air arm, Marines, Maritime Prefecture w wartime), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Urugwaja, FAU) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 25 sierpien (1825)
Narodowosc noun: Urugwajan(s)

adjective: Urugwajan
Naturalne zagrozenia seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Surowce naturalne arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 257 km; oil 160 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Broad Front Coalition (Frente Amplio) (formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA); Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Urugwajan Assembly or Asamblea Urugwaj [Danilo ASTORI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Architect's Society of Urugwaj (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Urugwajan Przemysl (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Urugwajan unions); Rural Association of Urugwaj (rancher's association); students; Urugwajan Construction League
Ludnosc 3,460,607 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 27.37% of households (2006)
Przyrost naturalny 0.504% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 93, FM 191, shortwave 7 (2005)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,073 km

standard gauge: 2,073 km 1.435-m gauge

note: 461 km have been taken out of service and 460 km are w partial use (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.034 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.985 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.675 male(s)/female

total population: 0.948 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: fully digitalized

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated w Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazylia and Argentyna; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2002)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 987,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 2.333 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 62 (2005)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.97 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.2% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,600 km (2005)
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