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Uruguay (2006)

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Uruguay 2006 year

Administrative divisions 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Age structure 0-14 years: 22.9% (male 399,409/female 386,136)

15-64 years: 63.9% (male 1,087,180/female 1,104,465)

65 years and over: 13.3% (male 185,251/female 269,491) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, wheat, corn, barley; livestock; fish
Airports 64 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 56

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 31 (2006)
Area total: 176,220 sq km

land: 173,620 sq km

water: 2,600 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Background Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Annexed by Brazil as a separate province in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center EP-FA Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
Birth rate 13.91 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.468 billion

expenditures: $4.845 billion; including capital expenditures of $193 million (2005 est.)
Capital name: Montevideo

geographic coordinates: 34 53 S, 56 11 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in October; ends second Sunday in March
Climate warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Coastline 660 km
Constitution 27 November 1966, effective February 1967; suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Country name conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

conventional short form: Uruguay

local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay

local short form: Uruguay

former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Death rate 9.05 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $13.24 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires James D. NEALON

embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200

mailing address: APO AA 34035

telephone: [598] (2) 418-7777

FAX: [598] (2) 418-8611
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois

chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316

FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

consulate(s): San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international uncontested dispute with Brazil over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Uruguay's well-to-do economy is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually during 1996-98, in 1999-2002 the economy suffered a major downturn, stemming largely from the spillover effects of the economic problems of its large neighbors, Argentina and Brazil. For instance, in 2001-02 Argentina made massive withdrawals of dollars deposited in Uruguayan banks, which led to a plunge in the Uruguayan peso and a massive rise in unemployment. Total GDP in these four years dropped by nearly 20%, with 2002 the worst year due to the banking crisis. The unemployment rate rose to nearly 20% in 2002, inflation surged, and the burden of external debt doubled. Cooperation with the IMF helped stem the damage. A debt swap with private-sector creditors in 2003 extended the maturity dates on nearly half of Uruguay's then $11.3 billion of public debt and helped restore public confidence. The economy grew about 10% in 2004 as a result of high commodity prices for Uruguayan exports, a competitive peso, growth in the region, and low international interest rates, but slowed to 6.1% in 2005.
Electricity - consumption 7.762 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 900 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 654 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 8.611 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Exchange rates Uruguayan pesos per US dollar - 24.479 (2005), 28.704 (2004), 28.209 (2003), 21.257 (2002), 13.319 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005) and Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005) and Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009)

election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.5%, Jorge LARRANAGA 35.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; other 4.1%
Exports 900 million kWh (2003)
Exports $3.55 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities meat, rice, leather products, wool, fish, dairy products
Exports - partners US 18.6%, Brazil 15.6%, Mexico 6.9%, Argentina 6.1%, Spain 4.1%, Germany 4% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 9.3%

industry: 31.1%

services: 59.6% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.8% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 33 00 S, 56 00 W
Geography - note second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 25.8% (1997)
Imports 654 million kWh (2003)
Imports $3.54 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 65 million cu m (2003 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, road vehicles, crude petroleum
Imports - partners Argentina 18.9%, Brazil 18.5%, Paraguay 14%, US 8.6%, China 6.2% (2005)
Independence 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
Industrial production growth rate 8.5% (2005 est.)
Industries food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.7% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 2,100 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Labor force 1.52 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 14%

industry: 16%

services: 70%
Land boundaries total: 1,564 km

border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Land use arable land: 7.77%

permanent crops: 0.24%

other: 91.99% (2005)
Languages Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Legal system based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; vice president has one vote in the Senate) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - EP-FA 16, Blanco 11, Colorado Party 3; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - EP-FA 52, Blanco 36, Colorado Party 10, Independent Party 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.33 years

male: 73.12 years

female: 79.65 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 97.6%

female: 98.4% (2003 est.)
Location Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,259 GRT/19,725 DWT

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 4 (Argentina 3, Greece 1)

registered in other countries: 8 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 2, Liberia 3, Spain 2) (2006)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes naval air arm, Marines, Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $371.2 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.1% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Nationality noun: Uruguayan(s)

adjective: Uruguayan
Natural hazards seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Natural resources arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Net migration rate -0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 257 km; oil 160 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition (Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio) or EP-FA [Tabare VAZQUEZ]; Socialist Party of Uruguay or Socialists [Reinaldo GARGANO]; Uruguayan Assembly or Asamblea Uruguay [Danilo ASTORI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Architect's Society of Uruguay (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Uruguayan Industries (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan unions); Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association); students; Uruguayan Construction League
Population 3,431,932 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 22% of households (2004)
Population growth rate 0.46% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 93, FM 191, shortwave 7 (2005)
Railways total: 2,073 km

standard gauge: 2,073 km 1.435-m gauge

note: 461 km have been taken out of service and 460 km are in partial use (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: fully digitalized

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network

international: country code - 598; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2002)
Telephones - main lines in use 1 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 600,000 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 62 (2005)
Terrain mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Total fertility rate 1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 12.2% (2005 est.)
Waterways 1,600 km (2005)
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