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Uruguay (2002)

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Uruguay 2002 year

Administrative divisions 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Age structure 0-14 years: 24.4% (male 422,826; female 402,324)

15-64 years: 62.6% (male 1,047,740; female 1,072,032)

65 years and over: 13% (male 181,522; female 260,131) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, wheat, corn, barley; livestock; fish
Airports 64 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 49

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 16

under 914 m: 31 (2002)
Area total: 176,220 sq km

land: 173,620 sq km

water: 2,600 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Background A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement, the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By the end of the year the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
Birth rate 17.28 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.7 billion

expenditures: $4.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2000) (2000)
Capital Montevideo
Climate warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Coastline 660 km
Constitution 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Country name conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

conventional short form: Uruguay

local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay

local short form: Uruguay

former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Currency Uruguayan peso (UYU)
Death rate 9 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $7.7 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Martin J. SILVERSTEIN

embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200

mailing address: APO AA 34035

telephone: [598] (2) 418-7777

FAX: [598] (2) 418-8611
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo FERNANDEZ-FAINGOLD

chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316

FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York
Disputes - international uncontested dispute with Brazil over islands in the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Uruguay's economy is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually in 1996-98, in 1999-2001 the economy suffered from lower demand in Argentina and Brazil, which together account for nearly half of Uruguay's exports. Despite the severity of the trade shocks, Uruguay's financial indicators remained more stable than those of its neighbors, a reflection of its solid reputation among investors and its investment-grade sovereign bond rating - one of only two in South America. Challenges for the government of President Jorge BATLLE include reducing the budget deficit, expanding Uruguay's trade ties beyond its Mercosur trade partners, and reducing the costs of public services. GDP fell by 1.3% in 2000 and by 1.5% in 2001.
Electricity - consumption 7.35 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 950 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 1.3 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 7.527 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 7%

hydro: 93%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian, practically nonexistent
Exchange rates Uruguayan pesos per US dollar - 14.3325 (January 2002), 13.3191 (2001), 12.0996 (2000), 11.3393 (1999), 10.4719 (1998), 9.4418 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 31 October 1999, with runoff election on 28 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Jorge BATLLE Ibanez elected president; percent of vote - Jorge BATLLE Ibanez 52% in a runoff against Tabare VAZQUEZ 44%
Exports 950 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2.24 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities meat, rice, leather products, wool, vehicles, dairy products
Exports - partners Mercosur partners 40%, EU 20%, US 8% (2001 est.)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy
GDP purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6%

industry: 29%

services: 65% (2001) (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $9,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -1.5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 33 00 S, 56 00 W
Geography - note second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Highways total: 8,764 km

paved: 7,800 km

unpaved: 964 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 26% (1997)
Imports 1.3 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $2.9 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, road vehicles, crude petroleum
Imports - partners Mercosur partners 44%, EU 18%, US 9% (2001 est.)
Independence 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
Industrial production growth rate -2.4% (2001 est.)
Industries food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Infant mortality rate 14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.6% (2001) (2001)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 14 (2001)
Irrigated land 1,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Labor force 1.2 million (2001) (2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 14%, industry 16%, services 70%
Land boundaries total: 1,564 km

border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Land use arable land: 7.21%

permanent crops: 0.27%

other: 92.52% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Legal system based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 12, Colorado Party 10, Blanco 7, New Sector/Space Coalition 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 40, Colorado Party 33, Blanco 22, New Sector/Space Coalition 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.66 years

male: 72.32 years

female: 79.17 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.3%

male: 96.9%

female: 97.7% (1995 est.)
Location Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Map references South America
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,752 GRT/5,228 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 4, Greece 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, Marines), Air Force, Police (Coracero Guard, Grenadier Guard)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $250 million (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (2000)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 824,395 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 666,880 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Nationality noun: Uruguayan(s)

adjective: Uruguayan
Natural hazards seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Natural resources arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Net migration rate -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Colorado Party [Jorge BATLLE Ibanez]; National Party or Blanco [Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera]; New Sector/Space Coalition or Nuevo Espacio [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio [Tabare VAZQUEZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,386,575 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 6% (1997)
Population growth rate 0.79% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Colonia, Fray Bentos, Juan La Caze, La Paloma, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu, Punta del Este, Piriapolis
Radio broadcast stations AM 91, FM 149, shortwave 7 (2001)
Radios 1.97 million (1997)
Railways total: 2,993 km

standard gauge: 2,993 km 1.435-m gauge

note: of the total route length, 461 km have been taken out of service and 460 km are in only partial use; moreover, not all lines offer passenger service (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: fully digitalized

domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2002)
Telephones - main lines in use 929,141 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 350,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 20 (2001)
Terrain mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Total fertility rate 2.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 15.2% (2001) (2001)
Waterways 1,600 km (used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft)
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