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Slovakia (2003)

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Slovakia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.8% (male 495,316; female 471,823)

15-64 years: 70.5% (male 1,903,335; female 1,924,065)

65 years and over: 11.7% (male 238,912; female 396,582) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Airports 37 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 20

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Area total: 48,845 sq km

land: 48,800 sq km

water: 45 sq km
Area - comparative about twice the size of New Hampshire
Background In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia was invited to join NATO and the EU in 2002.
Birth rate 10.1 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $5.2 billion

expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Capital Bratislava
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Country name conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska Republika

local short form: Slovensko
Currency Slovak koruna (SKK)
Death rate 9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $9.6 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald WEISER

embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (2) 5441-5148
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
Disputes - international small boundary changes made with Poland in 2003; Hungary has yet to amend status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia, who protest the law
Economic aid - recipient ODA $113 million (2000),; $92 million EU structural adjustment funds (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government has made excellent progress in 2001-03 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001-03, despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 15% in 2003, remains the economy's Achilles heel. The government faces other strong challenges in 2004, especially the cutting of budget and current account deficits, the containment of inflation, and the strengthening of the health care system.
Electricity - consumption 24.41 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 5.141 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 1.381 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 30.29 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 30.3%

hydro: 16%

nuclear: 53.6%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 45.33 (2002), 48.35 (2001), 46.04 (2000), 41.36 (1999), 35.23 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Pavol RUSKO (since 24 September 2003)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%; Mikulas DZURINDA reelected prime minister October 2002

note: government coalition - SDKU, SMK, KDH, ANO
Exports 5.141 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $12.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)
Exports - partners Germany 30.1%, Czech Republic 16.4%, Austria 10.7%, Italy 7.2%, Poland 5.7%, Hungary 4.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $67.34 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4.5%

industry: 34.1%

services: 61.4% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $12,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 48 40 N, 19 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 42,717 km

paved: 37,036 km (including 296 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,681 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5.1%

highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market
Imports 1.381 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $15.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports 7.205 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Imports - partners Germany 24.8%, Czech Republic 16%, Russia 13.5%, Austria 7%, Italy 6.4%, France 4% (2002)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 4.4% (2002 est.)
Industries metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Infant mortality rate total: 8.55 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMISET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Labor force 3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)
Land boundaries total: 1,524 km

border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
Land use arable land: 30.74%

permanent crops: 2.64%

other: 66.62% (1998 est.)
Languages Slovak (official), Hungarian
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20-21 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS-LS 19.5%, SDKU 15.1%, SMER 13.5%, SMK 11.2%, KDH 8.3%, ANO 8%, KSS 6.3%; seats by party - governing coalition 78 (SDKU 28, SMK 20, KDH 15, ANO 15), opposition 72 (HZDS 36, SMER 25, KSS 11) (as of February 2003, 12 deputies had split from HZDS and formed an independent faction)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.43 years

male: 70.44 years

female: 78.64 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Central Europe, south of Poland
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 11,574 GRT/16,330 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army (Ground Forces), Air and Air Defense Forces, Home Guards (Territorial Defense Forces), Civil Defense Force, Railway Armed Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation, Post, and Telecommunications)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $406 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.89% (2002)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,484,950 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,135,612 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 44,287 (2003 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Nationality noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Net migration rate 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 6,769 km; oil 449 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Democratic Party or DS [Ludovit KANIK]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef SEVC]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
Population 5,430,033 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.14% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bratislava, Komarno
Radio broadcast stations AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 3,668 km

broad gauge: 106 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 3,511 km 1.435-m gauge (1,567 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality

domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added

international: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Telephones - main lines in use 1,934,558 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 736,662 (April 1999)
Television broadcast stations 38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Total fertility rate 1.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 17.2% (2002 est.)
Waterways 172 km (all on the Danube)
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