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Slovakia (2001)

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Slovakia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Age structure 0-14 years:
18.86% (male 522,563; female 498,832)

15-64 years:
69.6% (male 1,872,496; female 1,896,249)

65 years and over:
11.54% (male 236,996; female 387,801) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Airports 35 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
8 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
7 (2000 est.)
Area total:
48,845 sq km

48,800 sq km

45 sq km
Area - comparative about twice the size of New Hampshire
Background In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic, political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors.
Birth rate 10.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$5.2 billion

$5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Capital Bratislava
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Country name conventional long form:
Slovak Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Slovenska Republika

local short form:
Currency Slovak koruna (SKK)
Death rate 9.25 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $10.3 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Carl SPIELVOGEL

Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[421] (7) 5443-3338

[421] (7) 5443-0096
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Martin BUTORA

Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; note - new chancery opening in June 2001 at International Court NW, Washington, DC

[1] (202) 965-5161

[1] (202) 965-5166
Disputes - international Gabcikovo/Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary is before the ICJ
Economic aid - recipient $421.9 million (1995)
Economy - overview Slovakia continues the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The economic slowdown in 1999 stemmed from large budget and current account deficits, fast-growing external debt, and persistent corruption. Even though GDP growth reached only 2.2% in 2000, the year was marked by positive developments such as foreign direct investment of $1.5 billion, strong export performance, restructuring and privatization in the banking sector, entry into the OECD, and initial efforts to stem corruption. Strong challenges face the government in 2001, especially the maintenance of fiscal balance, the further privatization of the economy, and the reduction of unemployment.
Electricity - consumption 21.471 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 930 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1.4 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 22.582 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Bodrok River 94 m

highest point:
Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 48.09 (March 2001), 46.395 (2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997), 30.654 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)

Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%

government coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH
Exports 930 million kWh (1999)
Exports $12 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)
Exports - partners EU 59.7% (Germany 27.8%, Austria 8%, Italy 8.9%), Czech Republic 18.1% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $55.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


66.2% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,200 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 48 40 N, 19 30 E
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
17,710 km

17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways)

177 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
18.2% (1992)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe
Imports 1.4 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Imports - partners EU 51.4% (Germany 26%, Italy 7.1%), Czech Republic 16.6%, Russia 11.9% (1999)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 9.3% (2000 est.)
Industries metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Infant mortality rate 8.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12.2% (2000 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 800 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Labor force 3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)
Land boundaries total:
1,355 km

border countries:
Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

8% (1993 est.)
Languages Slovak (official), Hungarian
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

last held 25-26 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - HZDS 27%, SDK 26.3%, SDL 14.7%, SMK 9.1%, SNS 9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party - governing coalition 93 (SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14)
Life expectancy at birth total population:
73.97 years

69.95 years

78.2 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:

total population:


Location Central Europe, south of Poland
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 3 (2000 est.)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Forces, Civil Defense Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $380 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.71% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,487,093 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,136,811 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
45,502 (2001 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Net migration rate 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef MIGAS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this is DZURINDA's new party for 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping representing members of the smaller SSDS, SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
Population 5,414,937 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.13% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bratislava, Komarno
Radio broadcast stations AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 3.12 million (1997)
Railways total:
3,660 km

broad gauge:
102 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge:
3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double track)

narrow gauge:
51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.61 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality

predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added

three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Telephones - main lines in use 1,934,558 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 736,662 (April 1999)
Television broadcast stations 38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Total fertility rate 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 17% (2000 est.)
Waterways 172 km (all on the Danube)
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