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Slovakia (2005)

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Slovakia 2005 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.1% (male 475,263/female 453,340)

15-64 years: 71% (male 1,919,222/female 1,939,097)

65 years and over: 11.9% (male 241,610/female 402,831) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Airports 34 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 17

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 7 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 7 (2004 est.)
Area total: 48,845 sq km

land: 48,800 sq km

water: 45 sq km
Area - comparative about twice the size of New Hampshire
Background In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Birth rate 10.62 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $15.44 billion

expenditures: $16.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Bratislava
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Country name conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska Republika

local short form: Slovensko
Death rate 9.43 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $19.54 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Scott N. THAYER

embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava

mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER

chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054

FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international Hungary amended its status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia, to which Slovakia had protested; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Economic aid - recipient $2.2 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Economy - overview Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress during 2001-04 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business-friendly policies, such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-04, despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 15% in 2003-04, remains the economy's Achilles heel. Slovakia joined the EU on 1 May 2004.
Electricity - consumption 28.89 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 8 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 6 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 31.15 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 32.257 (2004), 36.773 (2003), 45.327 (2002), 48.355 (2001), 46.035 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Ivan MIKLOS (since 30 October 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Pal CSAKY (since 30 October 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Pavol RUSKO (since May 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%; Mikulas DZURINDA reelected prime minister October 2002

note: government coalition - SDKU, SMK, KDH, ANO
Exports 8 billion kWh (2003)
Exports $29.24 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4%% (2004 est.)
Exports - partners Germany 34.4%, Czech Republic 14.7%, Austria 8.2%, Italy 5.8%, Poland 5.3%, US 4.5%, Hungary 4.3% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 30.1%

services: 66.4% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $14,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 48 40 N, 19 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Heliports 1 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 42,970 km

paved: 37,698 km (including 302 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,272 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 5.1%

highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market
Imports 6 billion kWh (2003)
Imports $29.67 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 6.6 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)
Imports - partners Germany 26.1%, Czech Republic 21.3%, Russia 9.1%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 4.9%, Italy 4.9% (2004)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 5.1% (2004 est.)
Industries metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Infant mortality rate total: 7.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.5% (2004 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 1,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Labor force 2.2 million (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 5.8%, industry 29.3%, construction 9%, services 55.9% (2003)
Land boundaries total: 1,524 km

border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
Land use arable land: 30.16%

permanent crops: 2.62%

other: 67.22% (2001)
Languages Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20-21 September 2002 (next to be held September 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS-LS 19.5%, SDKU 15.1%, Smer 13.5%, SMK 11.2%, KDH 8.3%, ANO 8%, KSS 6.3%; seats by party - governing coalition 69 (SDKU 22, SMK 20, KDH 15, ANO 12), opposition 81 (HZDS 26, Smer 25, KSS 9, Free Forum 6, People's Union 5, and independents 10)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.5 years

male: 70.52 years

female: 78.68 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.6% (2001 est.)
Location Central Europe, south of Poland
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 41,891 GRT/63,185 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1

foreign-owned: 18 (Bulgaria 8, Estonia 1, Greece 1, Syria 1, Turkey 6, United Kingdom 1) (2005)
Military branches Army of the Slovak Republic (Armady Slovenskej Republika): Land Command, Air Forces (Vozdushne Sily), Training and Support Command, Logistics Command (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $406 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.89% (2002)
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Nationality noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Net migration rate 0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 6,769 km; oil 449 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; People's Union or LU [Gustav KRAJCI]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef SEVC]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Peter SULOVSKY]
Political pressure groups and leaders Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
Population 5,431,363 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.15% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Bratislava, Komarno
Radio broadcast stations AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 3,662 km

broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality

domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added

international: country code - 421; three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Telephones - main lines in use 1,294,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,678,800 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 6 national broadcasting, 7 regional, 67 local (2004)
Terrain rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Total fertility rate 1.32 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 13.1% (31 December 2004 est.)
Waterways 172 km (on Danube River) (2004)
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