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Ruanda (2008)

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Ruanda 2008 roku

 Ruanda
Podzial administracyjny 4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; w Kinyarwanda - intara dla singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; w Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 2,082,474/female 2,065,251)


15-64 years: 55.7% (male 2,748,189/female 2,765,767)


65 years and over: 2.5% (male 98,796/female 147,032) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Lotniska 9 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 4


over 3,047 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Terytorium total: 26,338 sq km


land: 24,948 sq km


water: 1,390 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Maryland
Tlo historyczne In 1959, three years before independence from Belgia, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile w neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Ruandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war w 1990. The war, along z several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating w kwiecien 1994 w the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing w lipiec 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and the former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Ruanda, but several thousand remained w the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Ruanda, much as the RPF tried w 1990. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Ruanda's first local elections w marzec 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections w sierpien and wrzesien 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output, and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance. Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Ruandan involvement w two wars w recent years w the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Ruanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 40.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $702.6 million


expenditures: $779.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Kigali


geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 04 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat temperate; two rainy seasons (luty to kwiecien, listopad to styczen); mild w mountains z frost and snow possible
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja new constitution passed by referendum 26 maj 2003
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Ruanda


conventional short form: Ruanda


local long form: Republika y'u Ruanda


local short form: Ruanda


former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Wspolczynnik zgonow 14.91 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ARIETTI


embassy: 337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali


mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali


telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03


FAX: [250] 57 2128
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador James KOMONYO


chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882


FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces w Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Ruandan refugees still reside w 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi w 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Ruanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains w place
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $576 million (2005)
Ekonomia Ruanda is a poor rural country z about 90% of the population engaged w (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country w Africa and is landlocked z few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Ruanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Ruanda has made substantial progress w stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. Produkt krajowy brutto has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Ruanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace z population growth, requiring food imports. Ruanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-Swiat Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief w 2005-06. Ruanda also received Millennium Challenge Account Threshold status w 2006. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment and pursuing market-oriented reforms, although energy shortages, instability w neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 198.4 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10 million kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 120 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 95 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m


highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees dla fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Kurs waluty Ruandan francs per US dollar - 585 (2007), 560 (2006), 610 (2005), 574.62 (2004), 537.66 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 kwiecien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 marzec 2000)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: President elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 25 sierpien 2003 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Paul KAGAME elected president w first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Eksport 10 million kWh (2005 est.)
Eksport $170.8 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 10.3%, Niemcy 9.7%, US 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, z a golden sun z 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 38.2%


industry: 20.1%


services: 41.7% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland z the population predominantly rural
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%


highest 10%: 38.2% (2000)
Import 120 million kWh (2005)
Import $472.5 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 5,165 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Import - partnerzy Kenia 19.6%, Niemcy 7.9%, Uganda 6.8%, Belgia 5.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 lipiec 1962 (from Belgia-administered UN trusteeship)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 85.27 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 90.41 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 79.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 90 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Sila robocza 4.6 million (2000)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 90%


industry and services: 10% (2000)
Granica total: 893 km


border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 45.56%


permanent crops: 10.25%


other: 44.19% (2005)
Jezyki Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used w commercial centers
System prawny based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning; to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; to serve five-year terms)


elections: Senate - members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held w 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 29 wrzesien 2003 (next to be held w 2008)


election results: seats by party under the 2003 Konstytucja - RPF 40, PSD 7, PL 6, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Zywotnosc total population: 48.99 years


male: 47.87 years


female: 50.16 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 70.4%


male: 76.3%


female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Ruandan Defense Forces: Army, Air Force
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.9% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 lipiec (1962)
Narodowosc noun: Ruandan(s)


adjective: Ruandan
Naturalne zagrozenia periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are w the northwest along the border z Democratic Republic of the Congo
Surowce naturalne gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ludzie - uwagi Ruanda is the most densely populated country w Africa
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Ruanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party dla Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Ruandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Ludnosc 9,907,509


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 60% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.766% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 8 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters, three international FM programs include the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle), shortwave 1 (2005)
Religie Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.008 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.994 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.672 male(s)/female


total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business and government


domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is only about 4 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) w Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 22,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 290,000 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 2 (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous z altitude declining from west to east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft (2006)
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