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Rwanda (2006)

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Rwanda 2006 year

Administrative divisions 12 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - prefigintara for singular and plural); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 1,817,998/female 1,802,134)

15-64 years: 55.6% (male 2,392,778/female 2,417,467)

65 years and over: 2.5% (male 87,325/female 130,546) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Airports 9 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Area total: 26,338 sq km

land: 24,948 sq km

water: 1,390 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and the former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but about 10,000 remain in neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo and have formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output, and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance. Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.
Birth rate 40.37 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $509.9 million

expenditures: $584.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Kigali

geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 04 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 4 June 2003
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda

conventional short form: Rwanda

local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda

local short form: Rwanda

former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Death rate 16.09 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ARIETTI

embassy: 337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali

mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali

telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03

FAX: [250] 57 2128
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Zac NSENGA

chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Disputes - international Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; DROC and Rwanda established a border verification mechanism in 2005 to address accusations of Rwandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the Congo providing rebel Rwandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to attack Rwandan forces; as of 2004, Rwandan refugees lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia
Economic aid - recipient $425 million (2003)
Economy - overview Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005. Kigali's high defense expenditures have caused tension between the government and international donors and lending agencies. An energy shortage and instability in neighboring states may slow growth in 2006, while the lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continues to handicap export growth.
Electricity - consumption 121.1 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 30 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 98 million kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m

highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Environment - current issues deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Exchange rates Rwandan francs per US dollar - 610 (2005), 574.62 (2004), 537.66 (2003), 476.33 (2002), 442.8 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)

election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $98 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners Germany 11%, China 6.5%, Belgium 4.5% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 40.1%

industry: 22.9%

services: 37% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.2% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 24.2% (1985)
Imports 30 million kWh (2003)
Imports $243 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners Kenya 23.8%, Uganda 6.2%, Belgium 5.4%, Germany 5.3% (2005)
Independence 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 7% (2001 est.)
Industries cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Infant mortality rate total: 89.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 94.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 84.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 90 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Labor force 4.6 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 90%

industry and services: 10%
Land boundaries total: 893 km

border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Land use arable land: 45.56%

permanent crops: 10.25%

other: 44.19% (2005)
Languages Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Legal system based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning, to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations, to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held NA, members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 29 September 2003 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: seats by party under the 2003 Constitution - RPF 40, PSD 7, PL 6, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Life expectancy at birth total population: 47.3 years

male: 46.26 years

female: 48.38 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.4%

male: 76.3%

female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
Location Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Rwandan Defense Forces: Army, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $53.66 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Nationality noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan
Natural hazards periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Natural resources gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
People - note Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa
Political parties and leaders Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Prosper HIGIRO]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Population 8,648,248

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 60% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.43% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 8 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters, three international FM programs include the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle), shortwave 1 (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government

domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone

international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Telephones - main lines in use 23,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 290,000

note: Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several provincial capitals (2005)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2004)
Terrain mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Total fertility rate 5.43 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft (2005)
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