Main page Compare countries Index countries Index fields


Rwanda (2001)

Rwanda - select year:
RwandaRwanda (2002) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2003) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2004) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2005) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2006) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2007) (compare)
RwandaRwanda (2008) (compare)

Compare with other popular countries

Rwanda 2001 year

Administrative divisions 12 prefectures (in French - prefectures, singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA, singular - prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.4% (male 1,555,878; female 1,544,942)

15-64 years:
54.73% (male 1,989,501; female 2,013,012)

65 years and over:
2.87% (male 83,769; female 125,654) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Airports 8 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Area total:
26,338 sq km

24,948 sq km

1,390 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background In 1959, three years before independence, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire, now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC). Since then most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.
Birth rate 33.97 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$198 million

$411 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Kigali
Climate temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution on 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly adopted as Fundamental Law the constitution of 18 June 1991, provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord, the July 1994 Declaration by the Rwanda Patriotic Front, and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding
Country name conventional long form:
Rwandese Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republika y'u Rwanda

local short form:

Currency Rwandan franc (RWF)
Death rate 21.13 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.3 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador George M. STAPLES

Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali

mailing address:
B. P. 28, Kigali

[250] 756 01 through 03, 721 26, 771 47

[250] 721 28
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard SEZIBERA

1714 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 232-2882

[1] (202) 232-4544
Disputes - international Rwandan military forces are supporting the rebel forces in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Economic aid - recipient $591.5 million (1997); note - in summer 1998, Rwanda presented its policy objectives and development priorities to donor governments resulting in multiyear pledges in the amount of $250 million
Economy - overview Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. Continued growth in 2001 depends on the maintenance of international aid levels and the strengthening of world prices of coffee and tea.
Electricity - consumption 191.8 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 1 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 70 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 132 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Rusizi River 950 m

highest point:
Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Environment - current issues deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Exchange rates Rwandan francs per US dollar - 432.24 (January 2001), 389.70 (2000), 333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April 2000)

head of government:
Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

normally the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election for new president by deputies of the National Assembly and governmental ministers held 17 April 2000 (next national election to be held NA 2003); prime minister is appointed by the president

election results:
Paul KAGAME (FPR) elected president in a special parliamentary/ministerial ballot receiving 81 of a possible 86 votes
Exports 1 million kWh (1999)
Exports $68.4 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners Germany, Belgium, Pakistan, Italy, Kenya
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band
GDP purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


40% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $900 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; predominantly rural population
Highways total:
12,000 km

1,000 km

11,000 km (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
24.2% (1983-85)
Imports 70 million kWh (1999)
Imports $245.9 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners Kenya, Tanzania, US, Benelux, France, India
Independence 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 8.7% (1998 est.)
Industries cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Infant mortality rate 118.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2000)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; communal courts; appeals courts
Labor force 3.6 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90%
Land boundaries total:
893 km

border countries:
Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

12% (1993 est.)
Languages Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Legal system based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Transitional National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70 seats established on 12 December 1994 following a multiparty protocol of understanding; members were named by their parties, number of seats per party predetermined by the Arusha peace accord)

four additional seats, two for women and two for youth, added in 2001

the last national legislative elections were held 16 December 1988 for the National Development Council (the legislature prior to the advent of the Transitional National Assembly); no elections have been held for the Transitional National Assembly as the distribution of seats was predetermined by the Arusha peace accord

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FPR 13, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, RPA 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, UDPR 2; note - the distribution of seats was predetermined, four additional seats (two for women and two for youth) added in 2001
Life expectancy at birth total population:
38.99 years

38.35 years

39.65 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


45% (1995 est.)
Location Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $58 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.2% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,815,633 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
924,544 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Natural resources gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Net migration rate -1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Charles NTAKIRUTINKA, Vincent BIRUTA, Augusin IYAMUREMYE]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA, Emile NTWARABAKIGA, Christian MARARA]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Pie MUGABO, Enock KABERA, Prosper MUGIRANEZA]; Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rwanda Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [Medard RUTIJANWA]
Political pressure groups and leaders IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Population 7,312,756

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.16% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 601,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Roman Catholic 52.7%, Protestant 24%, Adventist 10.4%, Muslim 1.9%, indigenous beliefs and other 6.5%, none 4.5% (1996)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment:
telephone system primarily serves business and government

the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone

international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Telephones - main lines in use 15,000 (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA

however, Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several prefecture capitals (2000)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Total fertility rate 4.89 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways note:
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Sitemap: Compare countries listing (map site) | Country listing (map site)
Links: Add to favorites | Information about this website | Stats | Polityka prywatnosci
This page was generated in ##czas## s. Size this page: ##rozmiar_strony## kB.