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Portugal (2003)

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Portugal 2003 year

Administrative divisions 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 874,198; female 825,742)

15-64 years: 67.2% (male 3,326,957; female 3,461,425)

65 years and over: 16% (male 651,697; female 962,003) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products
Airports 66 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 40

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 26

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 25 (2002)
Area total: 92,391 sq km

land: 91,951 sq km

water: 440 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
Birth rate 11.45 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $45 billion

expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Lisbon
Climate maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Coastline 1,793 km
Constitution 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997
Country name conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $13.1 billion (1997 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John N. PALMER

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Manuel Dos Reis Alves CATARINO

chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco

consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Disputes - international Portugal has periodically reasserted claims to territories around the town of Olivenza, Spain
Economic aid - donor ODA, $271 million (1995)
Economy - overview Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth has been above the EU average for much of the past decade, but fell back in 2001-03. GDP per capita stands at 70% of that of the leading EU economies. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The coalition government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness and to keep the budget deficit within the 3% EU ceiling.
Electricity - consumption 41.48 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 3.479 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 3.743 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 44.32 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 64.5%

hydro: 31.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 4.1% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO (since 6 April 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Jorge SAMPAIO reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%
Exports 3.479 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $25.9 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 28,830 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports - partners Spain 20.3%, Germany 18.4%, France 12.6%, UK 10.5%, US 5.8%, Italy 4.8%, Belgium 4.5% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
GDP purchasing power parity - $195.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 28.7%

services: 67.7% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Geography - note Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Highways total: 68,732 km

paved: 59,110 km (including 1441 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,622 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Illicit drugs gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
Imports 3.743 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $39 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports 2.553 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 357,300 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports - partners Spain 28.1%, Germany 15%, France 10.2%, Italy 6.5%, UK 5.2%, Netherlands 4.5% (2002)
Independence 1143 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
Industrial production growth rate 1.5% (2002 est.)
Industries textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 5.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.26 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.7% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Irrigated land 6,320 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Labor force 5.1 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,214 km

border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Land use arable land: 20.57%

permanent crops: 7.74%

other: 71.69% (1999 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
Legal system civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 17 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - PSD 40.1%, PS 37.8%, PP 8.7%, PCP/PEV 6.9%, The Left Bloc 2.7%; seats by party - PSD 105, PS 96, PP 14, PCP/PEV 12, The Left Bloc 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.35 years

male: 72.86 years

female: 80.07 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.3%

male: 95.5%

female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
Location Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 132 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 993,325 GRT/1,533,255 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 62, chemical tanker 18, container 7, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea passenger 3, vehicle carrier 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, British Virgin Islands 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Germany 20, Greece 1, Iceland 1, Italy 16, Lebanon 1, Liberia 1, Monaco 2, Norway 5, Panama 5, Spain 22, Switzerland 8, UK 1, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (PON) (includes Marines), Air Force, Republican Guard (includes Fiscal Guard)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.286 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY99/00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,520,852 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,017,678 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 67,816 (2003 est.)
National holiday Portugal Day, 10 June (1580)
Nationality noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese
Natural hazards Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Natural resources fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate 0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 482 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders The Greens or PEV [no leader]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/The Greens or PCP/PEV [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Eduardo Ferro RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO]; United Democratic Coalition or CDU [Carlos CARVALHAS]; The Left Bloc [no leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,102,022 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.17% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo
Radio broadcast stations AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 2,850 km

broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: undergoing rapid development in recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned
Telephones - main lines in use 5.3 million (yearend 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,074,194 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 62 (plus 166 repeaters)

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)
Terrain mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Total fertility rate 1.49 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.7% (2002 est.)
Waterways 820 km

note: relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less cargo capacity
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