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Portugal (2001)

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Portugal 2001 year

Administrative divisions 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Age structure 0-14 years:
16.96% (male 877,379; female 830,242)

15-64 years:
67.42% (male 3,321,473; female 3,465,481)

65 years and over:
15.62% (male 637,207; female 934,471) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products
Airports 66 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
25 (2000 est.)
Area total:
92,391 sq km

91,951 sq km

440 sq km

includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC in 1985.
Birth rate 11.51 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$48.6 billion

$50.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.7 billion (2000 est.)
Capital Lisbon
Climate maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Coastline 1,793 km
Constitution 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997
Country name conventional long form:
Portuguese Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica Portuguesa

local short form:
Currency Portuguese escudo (PTE); euro (EUR)

on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Portugal at a fixed rate of 200.482 Portuguese escudos per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002
Death rate 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $13.1 billion (1997 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Gerald S. MCGOWAN

Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon

mailing address:
PSC 83, APO AE 09726

[351] (21) 727-3300

[351] (21) 726-9109

Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Joao Alberto Bacelar ROCHA PARIS

2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 328-8610

[1] (202) 462-3726

consulate(s) general:
Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco

Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Economic aid - donor ODA, $271 million (1995)
Economy - overview Portugal is an upcoming capitalist economy with a per capita GDP two-thirds that of the four big West European economies. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and joined with 10 other European countries in launching the euro on 1 January 1999. The year 2000 was marked by moderation in growth, inflation, and unemployment. The country continues to run a sizable trade deficit. The government is working to reform the tax system, to modernize capital plant, and to increase the country's competitiveness in the increasingly integrated world markets. Growth is expected to fall off slightly in 2001. Improvement in the education sector is critical to the long-run catch-up process.
Electricity - consumption 37.915 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 4.49 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 3.628 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 41.696 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



2.78% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Portuguese escudos per US dollar - 180.10 (1998), 175.31 (1997), 154.24 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)

head of government:
Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES (since 28 October 1995)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
Jorge SAMPAIO re-elected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%
Exports 4.49 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $26.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports - partners EU 83% (Germany 20%, Spain 18%, France 14%, UK 12%, Netherlands 5%, Benelux 5%, Italy), US 5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
GDP purchasing power parity - $159 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


60% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,800 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.7% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Geography - note Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Highways total:
68,732 km

59,110 km (including 797 km of expressways)

9,622 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
28.4% (1995 est.)
Illicit drugs important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
Imports 3.628 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $41 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports - partners EU 78% (Spain 25%, Germany 15%, France 11%, Italy 8%, UK 7%, Netherlands 5%), US 3%, Japan 3% (1998)
Independence 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
Industrial production growth rate 2.9% (1999 est.)
Industries textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Infant mortality rate 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Irrigated land 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Labor force 5 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
1,214 km

border countries:
Spain 1,214 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

20% (1993 est.)
Languages Portuguese
Legal system civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 10 October 1999 (next to be held by NA October 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 115, PSD 81, PCP 15, PP 15, PEV 2, The Left Bloc 2
Life expectancy at birth total population:
75.94 years

72.44 years

79.68 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


Location Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
158 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,053,586 GRT/1,611,238 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 14, cargo 84, chemical tanker 16, container 10, liquefied gas 7, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 4, vehicle carrier 4

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Spain 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.458 billion (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,530,466 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,030,759 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
71,404 (2001 est.)
National holiday Portugal Day, 10 June (1580)
Nationality noun:
Portuguese (singular and plural)

Natural hazards Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Natural resources fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble, arable land, hydro power
Net migration rate 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700 km

the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be 300 km long have not yet been built
Political parties and leaders The Greens or PEV [leader NA]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/United Democratic Coalition or PCP/CDU [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Antonio GUTERRES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [leader vacant]; The Left Bloc [no leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,066,253 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.18% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo
Radio broadcast stations AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 3.02 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,850 km

broad gauge:
2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified; 426 km double track)

narrow gauge:
274 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female

total population:
0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
undergoing rapid development in recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%

integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned
Telephones - main lines in use 5.3 million (end 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,074,194 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 62 (plus 166 repeaters)

includes Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)
Terrain mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Total fertility rate 1.48 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.3% (2000 est.)
Waterways 820 km

relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less cargo capacity
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