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Portugal (2007)

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Portugal 2007 year

Administrative divisions 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.5% (male 914,480/female 837,525)

15-64 years: 66.3% (male 3,501,206/female 3,551,706)

65 years and over: 17.3% (male 757,220/female 1,080,699) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, dairy products; fish
Airports 66 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 44

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 22

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Area total: 92,391 sq km

land: 91,951 sq km

water: 440 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
Birth rate 10.59 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $81.9 billion

expenditures: $89.49 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Coastline 1,793 km
Constitution adopted 2 April 1976; effective 25 April 1976; revised many times
Country name conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal
Death rate 10.56 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $368.2 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred J. HOFFMAN Jr.

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joao DE VALLERA

chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Disputes - international Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Economic aid - donor ODA, $271 million (1995)
Economy - overview Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-06. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-25 average. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The budget deficit surged to an all-time high of 6% of GDP in 2005 but was reduced to 4.6% in 2006. The government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness while keeping the budget deficit within the eurozone's 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
Electricity - consumption 46.3 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 2.802 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 9.626 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 43.69 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Exports 2.802 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $43.58 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 43,070 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports - partners Spain 26.5%, Germany 12.9%, France 12%, UK 6.7%, US 6.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8%

industry: 25.8%

services: 66.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.3% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Geography - note Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Illicit drugs seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
Imports 9.626 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $64.45 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 4.281 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 361,300 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports - partners Spain 29%, Germany 13.1%, France 8.1%, Italy 5.6%, Netherlands 4.4% (2006)
Independence 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
Industrial production growth rate 0.9% (2006 est.)
Industries textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.38 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2006 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 6,500 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Labor force 5.59 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 10%

industry: 30%

services: 60% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,214 km

border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Land use arable land: 17.29%

permanent crops: 7.84%

other: 74.87% (2005)
Languages Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
Legal system based on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 February 2005 (next to be held in February 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45.1%, PSD 28.7%, CDU 7.6%, PP 7.3%, BE 6.4%, other 4.9%; seats by party - PS 121, PSD 75, CDU 14, PP 12, BE 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.87 years

male: 74.6 years

female: 81.36 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.3%

male: 95.5%

female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
Location Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 117 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,022,783 GRT/1,287,951 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 37, carrier 1, chemical tanker 16, container 6, liquefied gas 9, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 10

foreign-owned: 80 (Belgium 9, Denmark 3, Germany 22, Greece 4, Italy 11, Japan 10, Malta 1, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 3, Spain 10, Sweden 2, Switzerland 2, US 1)

registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Malta 3, Panama 9, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Military branches Army, Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP), National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana) (2005)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.3% (2005 est.)
National holiday Portugal Day (Day of Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Nationality noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese
Natural hazards Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Natural resources fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate 3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,099 km; oil 8 km; refined products 174 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Green Ecologist Party or PEV [Heloisa Augusta Baiao de Brito APOLONIA]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Manuel Goncalves Marques MENDES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PEV and PCP)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,642,836 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.334% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 2,786 km

broad gauge: 2,603 km 1.668-m gauge (1,351 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 183 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.092 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.986 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.701 male(s)/female

total population: 0.946 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code - 351; 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned (1998)
Telephones - main lines in use 4.231 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12.226 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 62 (plus 166 repeaters; includes Azores and Madeira Islands) (1995)
Terrain mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Total fertility rate 1.48 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.6% (2006 est.)
Waterways 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2006)
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