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Panama (2001)

Panama - wybierz rok:
PanamaPanama (2002) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2003) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2004) (porownaj)
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Panama 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and one territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, and Veraguas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
30.13% (male 436,661; female 420,625)

15-64 years:
63.86% (male 920,787; female 896,520)

65 years and over:
6.01% (male 81,682; female 89,372) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
Lotniska 107 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
22 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
52 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
78,200 sq km

75,990 sq km

2,210 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than South Carolina
Tlo historyczne With US backing, Panama seceded from Kolumbia w 1903 and promptly signed a treaty z the US allowing dla the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 wrzesien 1977, an agreement was signed dla the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over w the intervening years. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed w 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were turned over to Panama by or on 31 grudzien 1999.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 19.06 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$2.8 billion

$2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $471 million (2000 est.)
Stolica Panama
Klimat tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (maj to styczen), short dry season (styczen to maj)
Linia brzegowa 2,490 km
Konstytucja 11 pazdziernik 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983 and 1994
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Panama

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica de Panama

local short form:
Waluta balboa (PAB); US dollar (USD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.56 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Simon FERRO

Avenida Balboa and Calle 37, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5

mailing address:
American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002

[507] 207-7000

[507] 227-1964
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfredo BOYD

2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 483-1407

consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Tampa
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $197.1 million (1995)
Ekonomia Panama's economy is based primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts dla three-fourths of Produkt krajowy brutto. Services include the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. A slump w Colon Free Zone and agricultural exports, high oil prices, and the withdrawal of US military forces held back economic growth w 2000. The government plans public works programs, tax reforms, and new regional trade agreements w order to stimulate growth w 2001.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 4.049 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 95 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 40 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 4.413 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



0.57% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Ocean Spokojny 0 m

highest point:
Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indien) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%
Kurs waluty balboas per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 wrzesien 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 wrzesien 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 wrzesien 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 wrzesien 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 wrzesien 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 wrzesien 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president

president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 2 maj 1999 (next to be held NA maj 2004)

election results:
Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez elected president; percent of vote - Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (PA) 44%, Martin TORRIJOS (PRD) 37%

government coalition - PA, MOLIRENA, Democratic Change, MORENA, PLN, PS
Eksport 95 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $5.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing
Eksport - partnerzy US 42%, Niemcy 11%, Kostaryka 5%, Benelux 4%, Wlochy 4% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) z a blue five-pointed star w the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white z a red five-pointed star w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $16.6 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


76.5% (1999 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.5% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 9 00 N, 80 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Ocean Atlantycki via Caribbean Sea z North Ocean Spokojny
Autostrady total:
11,592 km

4,079 km (including 30 km of expressways)

7,513 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
35.7% (1997)
Narkotyki major cocaine transshipment point and major drug money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem; Panama was cited by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) an international organization that includes the US Government, dla its lack of cooperation w the fight against international money laundering
Import 40 million kWh (1999)
Import $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary capital goods, crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals
Import - partnerzy US 39%, Colon Free Zone 14%, Japonia 8%, Ekwador 6%, Meksyk 5% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 3 listopad 1903 (from Kolumbia; became independent from Hiszpania 28 listopad 1821)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2000 est.)
Przemysl construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 20.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 1.8% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 6 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 320 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed dla 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
Sila robocza 1.1 million (2000 est.)

shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 20.8%, industry 18%, services 61.2% (1995 est.)
Granica total:
555 km

border countries:
Kolumbia 225 km, Kostaryka 330 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

27% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Spanish (official), English 14%

many Panamanians bilingual
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (71 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 2 maj 1999 (next to be held NA maj 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 34, PA 18, PDC 5, PS 4, MOLIRENA 3, PLN 3, Democratic Change 2, PRC 1, MORENA 1

legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts located w more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula
Zywotnosc total population:
75.68 years

72.94 years

78.53 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


90.2% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kolumbia and Kostaryka
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
4,711 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 111,515,984 GRT/169,655,363 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 1,381, cargo 925, chemical tanker 314, combination bulk 71, combination ore/oil 18, container 525, liquefied gas 193, livestock carrier 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 12, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 544, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 297, roll on/roll off 106, short-sea passenger 36, specialized tanker 29, vehicle carrier 208

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentyna 11, Australia 1, Austria 1, Bermudy 21, Belgia 4, The Bahamas 7, Brazylia 2, Kanada 4, Chiny 154, Chile 4, Kajmany 1, Kolumbia 6, Kuba 7, Cypr 4, Dania 12, Egipt 8, Irlandia 2, Gwinea Równikowa 1, Finlandia 1, Francja 4, Niemcy 17, Grecja 248, Hong Kong 158, Honduras 2, Chorwacja 3, Indonezja 40, Indie 11, Iran 1, Izrael 3, Wlochy 7, Japonia 1,007, Jordania 2, South Korea 223, Lotwa 4, Litwa 1, Liberia 2, Monako 43, Malta 1, Meksyk 5, Malezja 6, Holandia 6, Norwegia 36, Antyle Holenderskie 1, Peru 5, Pakistan 1, Portugalia 5, Filipiny 10, Rosja 6, Arabia Saudyjska 6, Seszele 2, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 5, Singapur 73, Hiszpania 35, Szwecja 4, Syria 11, Szwajcaria 53, UAE 11, Tajlandia 15, Tajwan 170, UK 18, US 79, Wenezuela 18, Samoa 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko - uwagi on 10 luty 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; w pazdziernik 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force, but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"
Wojsko an amendment to the Konstytucja abolished the armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces or PPF includes the Panamanian National Police, National Maritime Service, and National Air Service)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $128 million (FY99)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.3% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
775,966 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
530,916 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 3 listopad (1903)
Narodowosc noun:

Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 130 km (2001)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ruben AROSEMENA]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC [Serguei DE LA ROSA]; Democratic Change [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Martin TORRIJOS]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Raul ARANGO Gasteazopo]; National Renovation Movement or MORENA [Pedro VALLARINO Cox]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Ramon MORALES]; Solidarity Party or PS [Samuel LEWIS Galindo]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Ludnosc 2,845,647 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 37% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.3% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Manzanillo (part of Colon area), Vacamonte
Stacje radiowe AM 101, FM 134, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radia 815,000 (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
355 km

broad gauge:
76 km 1.524-m gauge

narrow gauge:
279 km 0.914-m gauge
Religie Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.91 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment:
domestic and international facilities well developed


1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to the Central American Microwave System
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 396,000 (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 17,000 (1997)
Stacje telewizyjne 38 (including repeaters) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.27 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 13% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 882 km

800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal
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