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Panama (2007)

Panama - wybierz rok:
PanamaPanama (2001) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2002) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2003) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2004) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2005) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2006) (porownaj)
PanamaPanama (2008) (porownaj)


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Panama 2007 roku

 Panama
Podzial administracyjny 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*(Kuna Yala), and Veraguas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30% (male 496,195/female 476,508)


15-64 years: 63.6% (male 1,044,139/female 1,016,805)


65 years and over: 6.4% (male 97,365/female 111,161) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
Lotniska 116 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 54


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 18


under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 62


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 11


under 914 m: 50 (2007)
Terytorium total: 78,200 sq km


land: 75,990 sq km


water: 2,210 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than South Carolina
Tlo historyczne Explored and settled by the Spanish w the 16th century, Panama broke z Hiszpania w 1821 and joined a union of Kolumbia, Wenezuela, and Ekwador - named the Republic of Gran Kolumbia. When the latter dissolved w 1830, Panama remained part of Kolumbia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Kolumbia w 1903 and promptly signed a treaty z the US allowing dla the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed dla the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over w the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed w 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. In pazdziernik 2006, Panamanians approved an ambitious plan to expand the Canal. The project, which is to begin w 2007 and could double the Canal's capacity, is expected to be completed w 2014-15.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.283 billion


expenditures: $4.195 billion (2006 est.)
Stolica name: Panama


geographic coordinates: 8 58 N, 79 32 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (maj to styczen), short dry season (styczen to maj)
Linia brzegowa 2,490 km
Konstytucja 11 pazdziernik 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Panama


conventional short form: Panama


local long form: Republica de Panama


local short form: Panama
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.44 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $9.972 billion (2006 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William A. EATON


embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 37, Apartado Postal 0816-02561, Zona 5, Panama City 5


mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002


telephone: [507] 207-7000


FAX: [507] 227-1964
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Federico HUMBERT Arias


chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407


FAX: [1] (202) 483-8416


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko), Tampa
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia operate within the remote border region z Panama
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $19.54 million (2005)
Ekonomia Panama's dollarized economy rests primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts dla three-fourths of Produkt krajowy brutto. Services include operating the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. A slump w the Colon Free Zone and agricultural exports, the global slowdown, and the withdrawal of US military forces held back economic growth w 2000-03; growth picked up w 2004-06 led by export-oriented services and a construction boom stimulated by tax incentives. The government has implemented tax reforms, as well as social security reforms, and backs regional trade agreements and development of tourism. Unemployment remains high. In pazdziernik 2006, voters passed a referendum to expand the Panama Canal to accommodate ships that are now too large to transverse the transoceanic crossway. Not a CAFTA signatory, Panama w grudzien 2006 independently negotiated a free trade agreement z the US, which, when implemented, will help promote the country's economic growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 4.735 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 51 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 55 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.661 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Volcan Baru 3,475 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution w urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indien) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%
Kurs waluty balboas per US dollar - 1 (2006), 1 (2005), 1 (2004), 1 (2003), 1 (2002)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms (eligible dla two more terms); election last held 2 maj 2004 (next to be held on 3 maj 2009); note - beginning w 2009, Panama will have only one vice president.


election results: Martin TORRIJOS Espino elected president; percent of vote - Martin TORRIJOS Espino 47.5%, Guillermo ENDARA Galimany 30.6%, Jose Miguel ALEMAN 17%, Ricardo MARTINELLI 4.9%


note: government coalition - PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), PP (Popular Party)
Eksport 51 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $8.509 billion f.o.b.; note - includes the Colon Free Zone (2006 est.)
Eksport NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing
Eksport - partnerzy US 39.8%, Hiszpania 8.1%, Holandia 6.7%, Szwecja 5.6%, Kostaryka 4.5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) z a blue five-pointed star w the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white z a red five-pointed star w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 7.3%


industry: 16.5%


services: 76.3% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.1% (2006 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 9 00 N, 80 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Ocean Atlantycki via Caribbean Sea z North Ocean Spokojny
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.7%


highest 10%: 43% (2003)
Narkotyki major cocaine transshipment point and primary money-laundering center dla narcotics revenue; money-laundering activity is especially heavy w the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem
Import 55 million kWh (2005)
Import $10.31 billion f.o.b. (includes the Colon Free Zone) (2006 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Import - towary capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals
Import - partnerzy US 27%, Antyle Holenderskie 10.1%, Kostaryka 5.1%, Japonia 4.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 3 listopad 1903 (from Kolumbia; became independent from Hiszpania 28 listopad 1821)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3% (2006 est.)
Przemysl construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 15.96 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 17.33 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 14.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 1.1% (2006 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CAN (observer), CSN (observer), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 430 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed dla 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
Sila robocza 1.439 million


note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 20.8%


industry: 18%


services: 61.2% (1995 est.)
Granica total: 555 km


border countries: Kolumbia 225 km, Kostaryka 330 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 7.26%


permanent crops: 1.95%


other: 90.79% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), English 14%; note - many Panamanians bilingual
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (78 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - w 2009, the number of seats will change to 71


elections: last held 2 maj 2004 (next to be held 3 maj 2009)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 41, PA 17, PS 9, MOLIRENA 4, CD 3, PLN 3, PP 1


note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts located w more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula
Zywotnosc total population: 75.19 years


male: 72.69 years


female: 77.8 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 91.9%


male: 92.5%


female: 91.2% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kolumbia and Kostaryka
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 5,764 ships (1000 GRT or over) 159,649,801 GRT/240,190,316 DWT


by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 1,940, cargo 1,034, carrier 3, chemical tanker 507, combination ore/oil 6, container 710, liquefied gas 191, livestock carrier 7, passenger 46, passenger/cargo 72, petroleum tanker 522, refrigerated cargo 288, roll on/roll off 129, specialized tanker 22, vehicle carrier 285


foreign-owned: 4,949 (Albania 1, Argentyna 8, Australia 4, Bahamas 2, Bangladesz 1, Belgia 11, Bulgaria 1, Kanada 17, Chile 8, Chiny 473, Kolumbia 4, Chorwacja 6, Kuba 11, Cypr 15, Dania 32, Republika Dominikanska 1, Ekwador 2, Egipt 13, Estonia 3, Francja 15, Gabon 1, Niemcy 38, Grecja 505, Hong Kong 137, Indie 25, Indonezja 37, Iran 4, Irlandia 1, Izrael 2, Wlochy 10, Jamajka 1, Japonia 2,151, Jordania 11, South Korea 316, Kuwejt 1, Lotwa 5, Liban 3, Litwa 5, Malezja 14, Malediwy 1, Malta 2, Meksyk 4, Monako 11, Holandia 14, Nigeria 6, Norwegia 60, Oman 1, Pakistan 5, Peru 15, Filipiny 12, Polska 15, Portugalia 9, Katar 1, Rumunia 8, Rosja 9, Arabia Saudyjska 14, Singapur 83, Hiszpania 61, Sri Lanka 3, Szwecja 9, Szwajcaria 26, Syria 24, Tajwan 306, Tajlandia 10, Turcja 53, Turks i Caicos 1, Ukraina 8, UAE 108, UK 35, US 115, Wenezuela 10, Wietnam 10, Jemen 5)


registered w other countries: 1 (Wenezuela 1) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi on 10 luty 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; w pazdziernik 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force, but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"
Wojsko an amendment to the Konstytucja abolished the armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces or PPF includes the Panamanian National Police, National Maritime Service, and National Air Service)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 3 listopad (1903)
Narodowosc noun: Panamanian(s)


adjective: Panamanian
Naturalne zagrozenia occasional severe storms and forest fires w the Darien area
Surowce naturalne copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hugo GUIRAUD]; Liberal Party or PLN [Joaquin F. Franco VASQUEZ]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Gisela CHUNG]; Panamenista Party or PA [Juan Carlos VARELA] (formerly the Arnulfista Party); Patriotic Union Party or PUP [Jose Raul MULINO and Anibal GALINDO]; Popular Party or PP [Rene ORILLAC] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC); Solidarity Party or PS
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Ludnosc 3,242,173 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 37% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.564% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 101, FM 134, shortwave 0 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 355 km


standard gauge: 77 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 278 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.027 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.876 male(s)/female


total population: 1.021 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed


domestic: NA


international: country code - 507; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to the Central American Microwave System
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 432,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.694 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 38 (including repeaters) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.66 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.8% (2006 est.)
Drogi wodne 800 km (includes 82 km Panama Canal) (2007)
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