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Niemcy (2008)

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Niemcy 2008 roku

 Niemcy
Podzial administracyjny 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 13.9% (male 5,894,724/female 5,590,373)


15-64 years: 66.3% (male 27,811,357/female 26,790,222)


65 years and over: 19.8% (male 6,771,972/female 9,542,348) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Lotniska 550 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 331


over 3,047 m: 14


2,438 to 3,047 m: 52


1,524 to 2,437 m: 58


914 to 1,523 m: 72


under 914 m: 135 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 219


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 34


under 914 m: 181 (2007)
Terytorium total: 357,021 sq km


land: 349,223 sq km


water: 7,798 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Montana
Tlo historyczne As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation, Niemcy is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Niemcy w two devastating Swiat Wars w the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, Francja, and the Soviet Union w 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed w 1949: the western Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself w key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed dla German unification w 1990. Since then, Niemcy has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In styczen 1999, Niemcy and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.465 trillion


expenditures: $1.477 trillion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Berlin


geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Linia brzegowa 2,389 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united Niemcy 3 pazdziernik 1990
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Federal Republic of Niemcy


conventional short form: Niemcy


local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland


local short form: Deutschland


former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.71 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.489 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William R. TIMKEN, Jr.


embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy is being built near the Brandenburg Gate w Berlin; ground was broken w pazdziernik 2004 and completion is scheduled dla 2008


mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265


telephone: [49] (030) 2375174


FAX: [49] (030) 8305-1215


consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Klaus SCHARIOTH


chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000


FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Ekonomia Niemcy's affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest w the world w PPP terms - showed considerable improvement w 2007 z 2.6% growth. After a long period of stagnation z an average growth rate of 0.7% between 2001-05 and chronically high unemployment, stronger growth led to a considerable fall w unemployment to about 8% near the end of 2007. Among the most important reasons dla Niemcy's high unemployment during the past decade were macroeconomic stagnation, the declining level of investment w plant and equipment, company restructuring, flat domestic consumption, structural rigidities w the labor market, lack of competition w the service sector, and high interest rates. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, z annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion. The former government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER launched a comprehensive set of reforms of labor market and welfare-related institutions. The current government of Chancellor Angela MERKEL has initiated other reform measures, such as a gradual increase w the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 67 and measures to increase female participation w the labor market. Niemcy's aging population, combined z high chronic unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions, but higher government revenues from the cyclical upturn w 2006-07 and a 3% rise w the value-added tax pushed Niemcy's budget deficit well below the EU's 3% debt limit. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could help Niemcy meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, although some economists continue to argue the need dla change w inflexible labor and services markets. Growth may fall below 2% w 2008 as the strong euro, high oil prices, tighter credit markets, and slowing growth abroad take their toll.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 545.5 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 61.43 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 56.86 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 579.4 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m


highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution w the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers w eastern Niemcy; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism dla ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas w line z the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Rosjan, Serbo-Chorwacjan, Spanish)
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 listopad 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor


elections: president elected dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 2004 (next scheduled dla 23 maj 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; Bundestag vote dla Chancellor last held 22 listopad 2005 (next will follow the national elections to be held by autumn 2009)


election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 dla Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 z 12 abstentions
Eksport 61.43 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.361 trillion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 9.42 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 518,700 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 9.5%, US 8.7%, UK 7.3%, Wlochy 6.7%, Holandia 6.3%, Austria 5.6%, Belgia 5.2%, Hiszpania 4.7% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 0.9%


industry: 29.6%


services: 69.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 28 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.2%


highest 10%: 22.1% (2000)
Narkotyki source of precursor chemicals dla South American cocaine processors; transshipment point dla and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
Import 56.86 billion kWh (2005)
Import $1.121 trillion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 86.99 billion cu m (2005)
Import 2.953 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Import - partnerzy Holandia 11.8%, Francja 8.5%, Belgia 7.2%, Chiny 5.9%, UK 5.7%, Wlochy 5.6%, US 5.3%, Austria 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 18 styczen 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, Francja) w 1945 following Swiat War II; Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG or West Niemcy) proclaimed 23 maj 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Niemcy) proclaimed 7 pazdziernik 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Niemcy and East Niemcy took place 3 pazdziernik 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 marzec 1991
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 4,850 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Federal Konstytucjaal Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Sila robocza 43.63 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 2.8%


industry: 33.4%


services: 63.8% (1999)
Granica total: 3,621 km


border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgia 167 km, Czechy 646 km, Dania 68 km, Francja 451 km, Luksemburg 138 km, Holandia 577 km, Polska 456 km, Szwajcaria 334 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 33.13%


permanent crops: 0.6%


other: 66.27% (2005)
Jezyki German
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts w the Federal Konstytucjaal Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (614 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition; to serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has three to six votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)


elections: Bundestag - last held on 18 wrzesien 2005 (next to be held no later than autumn 2009); note - there are no elections dla the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election


election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 35.2%, SPD 34.3%, FDP 9.8%, Left 8.7%, Greens 8.1%, other 3.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 225, SPD 222, FDP 61, Left 53, Greens 51, independents 2
Zywotnosc total population: 78.95 years


male: 75.96 years


female: 82.11 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Holandia and Polska, south of Dania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 382 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,085,484 GRT/14,261,476 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 50, chemical tanker 11, container 269, liquefied gas 5, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 26, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 3


foreign-owned: 7 (Chiny 2, Finlandia 4, Irlandia 1)


registered w other countries: 2,716 (Antigua i Barbuda 891, Australia 2, Bahamas 40, Belgia 1, Bermudy 21, Brazylia 7, Bulgaria 1, Birma 5, Kanada 3, Kajmany 17, Cypr 197, Dania 12, Wyspy Owcze 1, Finlandia 2, Francja 1, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 117, Hong Kong 10, Wyspa Man 61, Wlochy 1, Jamajka 1, Liberia 728, Luksemburg 10, Malezja 2, Malta 67, Wyspy Marshalla 214, Maroko 1, Holandia 70, Antyle Holenderskie 48, Norwegia 2, NZ 1, Panama 38, Portugalia 22, Rosja 2, Singapur 18, Hiszpania 9, Sri Lanka 6, St Vincent and The Grenadines 3, Szwecja 4, Turcja 1, UK 71, US 6) (2007)
Wojsko Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Service Support Command (Streitkraeftebasis), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.5% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Unity Day, 3 pazdziernik (1990)
Narodowosc noun: German(s)


adjective: German
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding
Surowce naturalne coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Ludzie - uwagi second most populous country w Europe after Rosja
Rurociagi condensate 37 km; gas 25,094 km; oil 3,546 km; refined products 3,828 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Erwin HUBER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE]; Left Party or Die Linke [Lothar BISKY and Oskar LAFONTAINE]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow business associations and employers' organizations; religious, trade unions, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ludnosc 82,400,996 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 11% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.033% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 48,215 km


standard gauge: 47,962 km 1.435-m gauge (20,278 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 229 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Religie Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.038 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female


total population: 0.966 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to Swiat War II, has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part


domestic: Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries


international: country code - 49; Niemcy's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations w the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 54.2 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 84.3 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu lowlands w north, uplands w center, Bavarian Alps w south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.4 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.1%


note: this is the International Labor Organization's estimated rate dla international comparisons; Niemcy's Federal Employment Office estimated a seasonally adjusted rate of 10.8% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,467 km


note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2006)
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