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Germany (2003)

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Germany 2003 year

Administrative divisions 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.9% (male 6,312,614; female 5,988,681)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 28,213,316; female 27,240,648)

65 years and over: 17.8% (male 5,842,457; female 8,800,610) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Airports 551 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 328

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 54

1,524 to 2,437 m: 63

914 to 1,523 m: 69

under 914 m: 131 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 223

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 189 (2002)
Area total: 357,021 sq km

land: 349,223 sq km

water: 7,798 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Background As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 2002, Germany and 11 other EU countries introduced a common European currency, the euro.
Birth rate 8.6 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $802 billion

expenditures: $825 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Berlin
Climate temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind
Coastline 2,389 km
Constitution 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990
Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 10.34 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel R. COATS

embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin

mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265

telephone: [49] (30) 238-5174

FAX: [49] (30) 238-6290

consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang Friedrich ISCHINGER

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140

FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Economy - overview Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy has turned in a weak performance throughout much of the 1990s and early 2000s. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term problem, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's ageing population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Growth in 2002 and 2003 fell short of 1%. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
Electricity - consumption 506.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 43.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 44 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 544.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 61.8%

hydro: 4.2%

nuclear: 29.9%

other: 4.1% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m

highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Environment - current issues emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 1.76 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)

head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor

elections: president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 22 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)

election results: Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly vote 50.7%
Exports 43.9 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $608 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 6.674 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 404,300 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners France 10.7%, US 10.3%, UK 8.4%, Italy 7.3%, Netherlands 6.1%, Austria 5.1%, Belgium 4.8%, Spain 4.6%, Switzerland 4.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
GDP purchasing power parity - $2.16 trillion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 31%

services: 68% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Heliports 40 (2002)
Highways total: 230,735 km

paved: 230,735 km (including 11,515 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Illicit drugs source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs
Imports 44 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $487.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 78.73 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 3.081 million bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports - partners France 9.5%, Netherlands 8.2%, US 7.7%, UK 6.5%, Italy 6.4%, Belgium 5.2%, Austria 4%, China 4% (2002)
Independence 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
Industrial production growth rate -2.1% (2002 est.)
Industries among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 4.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 200 (2001)
Irrigated land 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Labor force 41.9 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8% (1999)
Land boundaries total: 3,621 km

border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Land use arable land: 33.88%

permanent crops: 0.65%

other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
Languages German
Legal system civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (603 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)

elections: Federal Assembly - last held 22 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 38.5%, CDU/CSU 38.5%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.6%, FDP 7.4%, PDS 4%; seats by party - SPD 251, CDU/CSU 248, Alliance '90/Greens 55, FDP 47, PDS 2; Federal Council - current composition - NA
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.42 years

male: 75.46 years

female: 81.55 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1977 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 337 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,036,397 GRT/7,334,067 DWT

ships by type: cargo 94, chemical tanker 15, container 203, liquefied gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 5, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 7

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Finland 5, Iceland 1, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Joint Support Service
Military expenditures - dollar figure $38.8 billion (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.38% (2002)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 20,509,838 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 17,399,936 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 472,946 (2003 est.)
National holiday Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Nationality noun: German(s)

adjective: German
Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Net migration rate 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 325 km; gas 25,289 km; oil 3,743 km; refined products 3,827 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Alliance '90/Greens [Angelika BEER and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Population 82,398,326 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.04% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Radio broadcast stations AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 45,514 km (21,000 km electrified)

standard gauge: 45,276 km 1.435-m gauge (20,084 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 214 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
Religions Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part

domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international: Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 50.9 million (March 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 55.3 million (June 2001)
Television broadcast stations 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Total fertility rate 1.37 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.8% (2002 est.)
Waterways 7,500 km

note: major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)
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