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Germany (2001)

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Germany 2001 year

Administrative divisions 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen
Age structure 0-14 years:
15.57% (male 6,635,328; female 6,289,994)

15-64 years:
67.82% (male 28,619,237; female 27,691,698)

65 years and over:
16.61% (male 5,336,664; female 8,456,615) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Airports 613 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
124 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
225 (2000 est.)
Area total:
357,021 sq km

349,223 sq km

7,798 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Background As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries formed a common European currency, the euro.
Birth rate 9.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$996 billion

$1.036 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Berlin
Climate temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind
Coastline 2,389 km
Constitution 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990
Country name conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form:

local long form:
Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form:

German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Currency deutsche mark (DEM); euro (EUR)

on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Germany at a fixed rate of 1.95583 deutsche marks per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002
Death rate 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM (was due to resign on 20 January 2001)

Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin

mailing address:
PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265

[49] (30) 238-5174

[49] (30) 238-6290

consulate(s) general:
Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG

4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 298-8141

[1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

Wellington (America Samoa)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Economy - overview Germany possesses the world's third most technologically powerful economy after the US and Japan, but structural market rigidities - including the substantial non-wage costs of hiring new workers - have made unemployment a long-term, not just a cyclical, problem. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy remains a costly long-term problem, with annual transfers from western Germany amounting to roughly $70 billion. Growth picked up to 3% in 2000, largely due to recovering global demand; newly passed business and income tax cuts are expected to keep growth strong in 2001. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are transforming the German economy to meet the challenges of European economic integration and globalization in general.
Electricity - consumption 495.181 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 39.5 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 40.5 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 531.377 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



2.82% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Freepsum Lake -2 m

highest point:
Zugspitze 2,963 m
Environment - current issues emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to define mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69 (January 1999), 1.7597 (1998), 1.7341 (1997), 1.5048 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)

head of government:
Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)

Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor

president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held in the fall of 2002)

election results:
Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly - 52.7%
Exports 39.5 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $578 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners EU 55.3% (France 11.3%, UK 8.3%, Italy 7.3%, Netherlands 6.3%, Belgium/Luxembourg 5.1%), US 10.1%, Japan 2.0% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.936 trillion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


68.4% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,400 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Heliports 59 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
656,140 km

650,891 km (including 11,400 km of expressways)

5,249 km (all-weather) (1998 est.)
Illicit drugs source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs
Imports 40.5 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $505 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports - partners EU 52.2% (France 10.5%, Netherlands 7.6%, Italy 7.4%, UK 6.9%, Belgium/Luxembourg 5.6%), US 8.1%, Japan 4.9% (1999)
Independence 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
Industrial production growth rate 4.7% (2000)
Industries among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Infant mortality rate 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 123 (2000)
Irrigated land 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Labor force 40.5 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8% (1999)
Land boundaries total:
3,618 km

border countries:
Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 135 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

20% (1993 est.)
Languages German
Legal system civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (656 seats usually, but 669 for the 1998 term; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)

Federal Assembly - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held by the fall of 2002); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results:
Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%, CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%; seats by party - SPD 298, Alliance '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43, PDS 36; Federal Council - current composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 26, CDU-led states 28, grand coalitions 15
Life expectancy at birth total population:
77.61 years

74.47 years

80.92 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
99% (1977 est.)


Location Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,414,724 GRT/7,952,776 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 169, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 243, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 7 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Border Police, Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $32.8 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
20,851,022 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
17,760,412 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
482,318 (2001 est.)
National holiday Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Net migration rate 4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 2,500 km (1998)
Political parties and leaders Alliance '90/Greens [Renate KUENAST and Fritz KUHN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman]; note - Wolfgang GERHARDT will probably be replaced by Guido WESTERWELLE in May 2001; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gabi ZIMMER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Population 83,029,536 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.27% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Radio broadcast stations AM 51, FM 767, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 77.8 million (1997)
Railways total:
40,826 km including at least 14,253 km electrified and 14,768 km double- or multiple-tracked (1998)

since privatization in 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the tracks it owns; in addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own an approximate 3,000 km to 4,000 km of the total tracks
Religions Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%, unaffiliated or other 26.3%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.63 male(s)/female

total population:
0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part

Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 7 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links
Telephones - main lines in use 45.2 million (1997)

46.5 million main lines were installed by yearend 1998
Telephones - mobile cellular 15.318 million (April 1999)
Television broadcast stations 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Total fertility rate 1.38 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.9% (2000 est.)
Waterways 7,500 km

major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)
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