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Niemcy (2002)

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Niemcy 2002 roku

Podzial administracyjny 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 6,568,699; female 6,227,148)

15-64 years: 67.6% (male 28,606,964; female 27,695,539)

65 years and over: 17% (male 5,546,140; female 8,607,361) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Lotniska 625 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 328

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 54

1,524 to 2,437 m: 63

914 to 1,523 m: 69

under 914 m: 131 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 223

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 189 (2002)
Terytorium total: 357,021 sq km

land: 349,223 sq km

water: 7,798 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Montana
Tlo historyczne As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Niemcy remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country w two devastating Swiat Wars w the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, Francja, and the Soviet Union w 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed w 1949: the western Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself w key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed dla German unification w 1990. Since then Niemcy has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In styczen 2002, Niemcy and 11 other EU countries introduced a common European currency, the euro.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $802 billion

expenditures: $825 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Stolica Berlin
Klimat temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind
Linia brzegowa 2,389 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 pazdziernik 1990
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Federal Republic of Niemcy

conventional short form: Niemcy

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Waluta euro (EUR); deutsche mark (DEM)

note: on 1 styczen 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 styczen 2002, the euro became the sole currency dla everyday transactions within the member countries
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel R. COATS

embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near the Brandenburg Gate w Berlin

mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265

telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0

FAX: [49] (030) 238-6290

consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang Friedrich ISCHINGER

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140

FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Ekonomia Niemcy's affluent and technologically powerful economy turned w a relatively weak performance throughout much of the 1990s. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term problem, z annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Niemcy's ageing population, combined z high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities w the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Business and income tax cuts introduced w 2001 did not spare Niemcy from the impact of the downturn w international trade, and domestic demand faltered as unemployment began to rise. Growth w 2002 again fell short of 1%. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Niemcy to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are addressed. In the short run, however, the fall w government revenues and the rise w expenditures has brought the deficit close to the EU's 3% debt limit.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 501.72 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 42.5 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 44.5 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 537.33 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 63%

hydro: 4%

nuclear: 30%

other: 3% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m

highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution w the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers w eastern Niemcy; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism dla ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas w line z the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Chorwacjan, Italian, Rosjan, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (styczen 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69 (styczen 1999), 1.7597 (1998), 1.7341 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Johannes RAU (since 1 lipiec 1999)

head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 pazdziernik 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor

elections: president elected dla a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 1999 (next to be held 23 maj 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; election last held 22 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held NA wrzesien 2006)

election results: Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly vote NA%
Eksport 42.5 billion kWh (2000)
Eksport $608 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 11.1%, US 10.6%, UK 8.4%, Holandia 6.2%, Austria 5.1%; Belgia 4.9%, Hiszpania 4.5%, Szwajcaria 4.3% (2001) (2001)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $2.184 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1%

industry: 31%

services: 68% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,600 (2002 est.); (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 0.4% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 40 (2002)
Autostrady total: 656,140 km

paved: 650,891 km (including 11,400 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,249 km (all-weather) (1998 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 25% (1997)
Narkotyki source of precursor chemicals dla South American cocaine processors; transshipment point dla and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs
Import 44.5 billion kWh (2000)
Import $487.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Import - partnerzy Francja 9.4%, Holandia 8.4%, US 8.3%, UK 6.9%, Wlochy 6.5%, Belgia 5.2%, Japonia 4.1%, Austria 3.8% (2001)
Niepodleglosc 18 styczen 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, Francja) w 1945 following Swiat War II; Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG or West Niemcy) proclaimed 23 maj 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Niemcy) proclaimed 7 pazdziernik 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Niemcy and East Niemcy took place 3 pazdziernik 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 marzec 1991
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -2.1% (2002 est.)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 1.3% (2002 est.)
Dostawcy internetu 200 (2001)
Nawadniane tereny 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Federal Konstytucjaal Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Sila robocza 41.9 million (2001)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki industry 33%, agriculture 3%, services 64% (1999)
Granica total: 3,621 km

border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgia 167 km, Czechy 646 km, Dania 68 km, Francja 451 km, Luksemburg 138 km, Holandia 577 km, Polska 456 km, Szwajcaria 334 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 33.88%

permanent crops: 0.65%

other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
Jezyki German
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts w the Federal Konstytucjaal Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (603 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)

elections: Federal Assembly - last held 22 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held NA wrzesien 2006); note - there are no elections dla the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 38.5%, CDU/CSU 38.5%, Greens 8.6%, FDP 7.4%, PDS 4%; seats by party - SPD 251, CDU/CSU 248, Greens 55, FDP 47, PDS 2; Federal Council - current composition - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 77.78 years

male: 74.64 years

female: 81.09 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1977 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Lokalizacja Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Holandia and Polska, south of Dania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 388 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,758,942 GRT/7,132,525 DWT

ships by type: cargo 132, chemical tanker 10, container 219, liquefied gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 7

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Finlandia 5, Islandia 1, Holandia 3, Szwajcaria 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Joint Support Service
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $38.8 billion (2002)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.38% (2002)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 20,854,329 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 17,734,977 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 482,318 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Unity Day, 3 pazdziernik (1990)
Narodowosc noun: German(s)

adjective: German
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding
Surowce naturalne iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 3.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 2,240 km (2001)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance '90/Greens [Angelika BEER and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; the Greens [leader NA]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gabriele ZIMMER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Ludnosc 83,251,851 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.26% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Stacje radiowe AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radia 77.8 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 44,000 km (including at least 20,300 km electrified); most routes are double- or multiple-track

note: since privatization w 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the track it owns; w addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own approximately 3,000 to 4,000 km of track (2001 est.)
Religie Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to Swiat War II, has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part

domestic: Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international: Niemcy's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations w the INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 50.9 million (marzec 2001)
Telefony komorkowe 55.3 million (czerwiec 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu lowlands w north, uplands w center, Bavarian Alps w south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.39 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.8% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,500 km

note: major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)
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