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Mozambik (2008)

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Mozambik 2008 roku

 Mozambik
Podzial administracyjny 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 44.7% (male 4,692,126/female 4,647,960)


15-64 years: 52.5% (male 5,345,618/female 5,633,511)


65 years and over: 2.8% (male 244,886/female 341,484) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Lotniska 147 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 22


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 10


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 125


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 9


914 to 1,523 m: 36


under 914 m: 79 (2007)
Terytorium total: 801,590 sq km


land: 784,090 sq km


water: 17,500 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of California
Tlo historyczne Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close z independence w 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on Republika Poludniowej Afryki, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front dla the Liberation of Mozambik (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism w 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided dla multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambik National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting w 1992. In grudzien 2004, Mozambik underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years w office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambik has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 38.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.163 billion


expenditures: $2.623 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Maputo


geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical to subtropical
Linia brzegowa 2,470 km
Konstytucja 30 listopad 1990
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Mozambik


conventional short form: Mozambik


local long form: Republica de Mocambique


local short form: Mocambique


former: Portuguese East Africa
Wspolczynnik zgonow 20.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.284 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Todd C. CHAPMAN


embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo


mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo


telephone: [258] (21) 492797


FAX: [258] (21) 490448
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA


chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146


FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.286 billion (2005)
Ekonomia At independence w 1975, Mozambik was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined z donor assistance and z political stability since the multi-party elections w 1994, have led to dramatic improvements w the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits w 2000-06, w 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while Produkt krajowy brutto growth reached 7.5%. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambik remains dependent upon foreign assistance dla much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugalia's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambik at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed dla additional investment projects w titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambik's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In lipiec 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact z Mozambik; the Mozambican government moved rapidly to ratify the Compact and propose a plan dla funding.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 9.127 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 12 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 9.588 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 13.17 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy a long civil war and recurrent drought w the hinterlands have resulted w increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas z adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching dla ivory is a problem
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indiens 0.08%
Kurs waluty meticais per US dollar - 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003)


note: w 2006 Mozambik revalued its currency, z 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 luty 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 luty 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 1-2 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Eksport 12 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $2.731 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Eksport - partnerzy Holandia 59.7%, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 15.2%, Zimbabwe 3.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow z a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged w white; centered w the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe w black superimposed on an open white book
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 23.1%


industry: 30.2%


services: 46.7% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%


highest 10%: 39.4% (2002)
Narkotyki southern African transit point dla South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined dla the European and Republika Poludniowej Afrykin markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to Republika Poludniowej Afryki); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Import 9.588 billion kWh (2005)
Import $3.028 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 13,320 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Import - partnerzy Republika Poludniowej Afryki 36.3%, Holandia 15.6%, Portugalia 3.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 25 czerwiec 1975 (from Portugalia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 109.93 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 112.81 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 106.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,180 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts


note: although the constitution provides dla a separate Konstytucjaal Court, one has never been established; w its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Sila robocza 9.6 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 81%


industry: 6%


services: 13% (1997 est.)
Granica total: 4,571 km


border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 491 km, Suazi 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 5.43%


permanent crops: 0.29%


other: 94.28% (2005)
Jezyki Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
System prawny based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 1-2 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2009)


election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Zywotnosc total population: 40.9 years


male: 41.4 years


female: 40.4 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 47.8%


male: 63.5%


female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambik Channel, between Republika Poludniowej Afryki and Tanzania
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT


by type: cargo 2


foreign-owned: 2 (Belgia 2) (2007)
Wojsko Mozambik Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambik Army, Mozambik Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambik Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 25 czerwiec (1975)
Narodowosc noun: Mozambican(s)


adjective: Mozambican
Naturalne zagrozenia severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods w central and southern provinces
Surowce naturalne coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 964 km; refined products 278 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Front dla the Liberation of Mozambik (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambik National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Institute dla Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement dla Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
Ludnosc 20,905,585


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 70% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.803% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,123 km


narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)
Religie Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.717 male(s)/female


total population: 0.968 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: fair system z an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons


domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled z a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation w the fixed-line network contrasts z rapid growth w the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the Republika Poludniowej Afrykin and Suazi borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala


international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 67,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 2.339 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (2000)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly coastal lowlands, uplands w center, high plateaus w northwest, mountains w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 21% (1997 est.)
Drogi wodne 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2007)
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