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Mozambique (2001)

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Mozambique 2001 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.72% (male 4,124,093; female 4,152,135)

15-64 years:
54.53% (male 5,222,477; female 5,339,615)

65 years and over:
2.75% (male 221,678; female 311,059) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, rice, coconuts, sisal, tropical fruits; beef, poultry
Airports 168 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
92 (2000 est.)
Area total:
801,590 sq km

784,090 sq km

17,500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of California
Background Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.
Birth rate 37.2 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$466.9 million

$1.004 billion, including capital expenditures of $502.5 million (2000 est.)
Capital Maputo
Climate tropical to subtropical
Coastline 2,470 km
Constitution 30 November 1990
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Mozambique

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica de Mocambique

local short form:

Portuguese East Africa
Currency metical (MZM)
Death rate 24.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON

Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo

mailing address:
P. O. Box 783, Maputo

[258] (1) 492797

[258] (1) 490114
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA

Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 293-7146

[1] (202) 835-0245
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $1.04 billion (1998)
Economy - overview Before the peace accord of October 1992, Mozambique's economy was devastated by a protracted civil war and socialist mismanagement. In 1994, it ranked as one of the poorest countries in the world. Since then, Mozambique has undertaken a series of economic reforms. Almost all aspects of the economy have been liberalized to some extent. More than 900 state enterprises have been privatized. A value-added tax, introduced in 1999, launched the government's comprehensive tax reform program. Pending are much needed commercial code reform and greater private sector involvement in the transportation, telecommunications, and energy sectors. Since 1996, inflation has been low and foreign exchange rates relatively stable. Albeit from a small base, Mozambique's economy grew at an annual 10% rate in 1997-99, one of the highest growth rates in the world. Growth slowed and inflation rose in 2000 due to devastating flooding in the early part of the year. Both indicators should recover in 2001. The country depends on foreign assistance to balance the budget and to pay for a trade imbalance in which imports greatly outnumber exports. The trade situation should improve in the medium term, however, as trade and transportation links to South Africa and the rest of the region have been improved and sizeable foreign investments are beginning to materialize. Among these investments are metal production (aluminum, steel), natural gas, power generation, agriculture, fishing, timber, and transportation services. Mozambique has received a formal cancellation of a large portion of its external debt through an IMF initiative and is scheduled to receive additional relief.
Electricity - consumption 307 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 1.9 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 68 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 2.3 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Monte Binga 2,436 m
Environment - current issues a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Exchange rates meticais per US dollar - 17,331.0 (January 2001), 5,199.8 (2000), 12,775.1 (1999), 11,874.6 (1998), 11.543.6 (1997), 11,293.8 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)

head of government:
Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since NA December 1994)


president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%
Exports 1.9 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $390 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities prawns 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity (2000)
Exports - partners EU 27%, South Africa 26%, Zimbabwe 15%, India 12%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1999 est.)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
GDP purchasing power parity - $19.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


37% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Highways total:
30,400 km

5,685 km

24,715 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
31.7% (1996-97)
Illicit drugs Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa)
Imports 68 million kWh (1999)
Imports $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners South Africa 44%, EU 16%, US 6.5%, Japan 6.5%, Pakistan 3%, India 3% (1999 est.)
Independence 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 7.2% (1999)
Industries food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Infant mortality rate 139.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.4% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,200 sq km (2000 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Labor force 7.4 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total:
4,571 km

border countries:
Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

22% (1993 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)

last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117

Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of the other opposition parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary seats
Life expectancy at birth total population:
36.45 years

37.25 years

35.62 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


27% (1998 est.)
Location Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 3 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35.1 million (2000 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (2000 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
4,627,052 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,670,933 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards severe droughts and floods occur in central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones
Natural resources coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

not operating
Political parties and leaders Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman]; Mozambique National Resistance - Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana - Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 19,371,057

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.3% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane
Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 16, shortwave 12 (2000)
Radios 730,000 (1997)
Railways total:
3,131 km

narrow gauge:
2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (1994)
Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 3.5 telephones for each 1,000 persons)

the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter

satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 65,354 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 18,500 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2000)
Terrain mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Total fertility rate 4.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 21% (1997 est.)
Waterways 3,750 km (navigable routes)
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