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Mozambique (2003)

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Mozambique 2003 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Maputo City*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.1% (male 3,634,173; female 3,725,396)

15-64 years: 55.3% (male 4,712,891; female 4,945,123)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 189,778; female 271,905) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Airports 165 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 22

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 143

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 35

under 914 m: 91 (2002)
Area total: 801,590 sq km

land: 784,090 sq km

water: 17,500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of California
Background Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992. Heavy flooding in both 1999 and 2000 severely hurt the economy. Political stability and sound economic policies have encouraged recent foreign investment.
Birth rate 38.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $393.1 million

expenditures: $1.025 billion, including capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2001 est.)
Capital Maputo
Climate tropical to subtropical
Coastline 2,470 km
Constitution 30 November 1990
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique

conventional short form: Mozambique

local long form: Republica de Mocambique

local short form: Mocambique

former: Portuguese East Africa
Currency metical (MZM)
Death rate 30.04 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $966 million (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON

embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo

mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo

telephone: [258] (1) 492797

FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE

chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146

FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $632.8 million (2001)
Economy - overview At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was brought to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-02. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date has increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing should further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
Electricity - consumption 1.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 5.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 500 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 7.193 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2.9%

hydro: 97.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Environment - current issues a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Exchange rates meticais per US dollar - 23,678 (2002), 20,703.6 (2001), 15,447.1 (2000), 13,028.6 (1999), 12,110.2 (1998)

note: effective October 2000, the exchange rate is determined as the weighted average of buying and selling exchange rates of all transactions of commercial banks and stock exchanges with the public
Executive branch chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee on 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since 17 December 1994)

cabinet: Cabinet

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%
Exports 5.8 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $680 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners Belgium 24.3%, South Africa 9.1%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
GDP purchasing power parity - $19.52 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 22%

industry: 23%

services: 55% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.7% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Geography - note the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Highways total: 30,400 km

paved: 5,685 km

unpaved: 24,715 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Illicit drugs Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 500 million kWh (2001)
Imports $1.18 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners South Africa 27.5%, France 8.9%, US 7%, Australia 6.9%, Japan 6%, Malaysia 4% (2002)
Independence 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 3.4% (2000)
Industries food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Infant mortality rate total: 199 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 216.85 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 180.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 15.2% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 11 (2002)
Irrigated land 1,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

note: although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Labor force 9.2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,571 km

border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Land use arable land: 3.98%

permanent crops: 0.29%

other: 95.73% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117

note: Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of the other opposition parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary seats; in September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul DOMINGOS was expelled from the party; he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent
Life expectancy at birth total population: 31.3 years

male: 30.98 years

female: 31.63 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47.8%

male: 63.5%

female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
Location South-eastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT

ships by type: cargo 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Forces, Militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35.1 million (2000 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (2000 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 4,142,449 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,373,444 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Nationality noun: Mozambican(s)

adjective: Mozambican
Natural hazards severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods occur in central and southern provinces
Natural resources coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 189 km; refined products 292 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
Population 17,479,266

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.82% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane
Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Railways total: 3,123 km

narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2002)
Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 16 telephones for each 1,000 persons)

domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 90,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 287,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Total fertility rate 4.87 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 21% (1997 est.)
Waterways 3,750 km (navigable routes)
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