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Kolumbia (2008)

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Kolumbia 2008 roku

 Kolumbia
Podzial administracyjny 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 29.8% (male 6,696,471/female 6,539,612)


15-64 years: 64.8% (male 14,012,140/female 14,732,874)


65 years and over: 5.4% (male 1,042,645/female 1,355,856) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Lotniska 934 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 103


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 8


1,524 to 2,437 m: 39


914 to 1,523 m: 42


under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 831


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 34


914 to 1,523 m: 216


under 914 m: 580 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,138,910 sq km


land: 1,038,700 sq km


water: 100,210 sq km


note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne Kolumbia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Kolumbia w 1830 (the others are Ekwador and Wenezuela). A 40-year conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups - both heavily funded by the drug trade - escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence. More than 32,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Kolumbia (AUC) as a formal organization had ceased to function. Still, some renegades continued to engage w criminal activities. The Kolumbian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence w every one of its municipalities. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $64.02 billion


expenditures: $64.35 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Bogota


geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Ocean Spokojny 1,448 km)
Konstytucja 5 lipiec 1991; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kolumbia


conventional short form: Kolumbia


local long form: Republica de Kolumbia


local short form: Kolumbia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $43.3 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William BROWNFIELD


embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831


mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038


telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811


FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Carolina BARCO Isakson


chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338


FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko), Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties w Nikaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Kolumbia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims w the western Caribbean Sea - final public hearings are scheduled dla 2007; dispute z Wenezuela over maritime boundary and Wenezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have caused over 300,000 persons to flee the country, mostly into neighboring states
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $511.1 million (2005)
Ekonomia Kolumbia's economy has experienced positive growth over the past five years despite a serious armed conflict. In fact, 2007 is regarded by policy makers and the private sector as one of the best economic years w recent history, after 2005. The economy continues to improve w part because of austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, an export-oriented growth strategy, improved domestic security, and high commodity prices. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE include reforming the pension system, reducing high unemployment, and funding new exploration to offset declining oil production. The government's economic reforms and democratic security strategy, coupled z increased investment, have engendered a growing sense of confidence w the economy. However, the business sector continues to be concerned about failure of the US Congress to approve the signed FTA.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 38.91 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.758 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 16 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 50.47 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m


note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially w Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Kurs waluty Kolumbian pesos per US dollar - 2,013.8 (2007), 2,358.6 (2006), 2,320.75 (2005), 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the three largest parties that supported President URIBE's reelection - the PSUN, PC, and CR - and independents


elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2010)


election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%
Eksport 1.758 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $28.39 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 289,700 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary petroleum, coffee, coal, nickel, emeralds, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Eksport - partnerzy US 35.8%, Wenezuela 11.4%, Ekwador 5.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red


note: similar to the flag of Ekwador, which is longer and bears the Ekwadorian coat of arms superimposed w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.5%


industry: 36%


services: 52.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne only South American country z coastlines on both the North Ocean Spokojny and Caribbean Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 7.9%


highest 10%: 34.3% (2004)
Narkotyki illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator z 144,000 hectares w coca cultivation w 2005, a 26% increase over 2004, producing a potential of 545 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to most of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; w 2005, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 130,000 hectares but aggressive replanting on the part of coca growers means Kolumbia remains a key producer; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested w Kolumbia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation fell 50% between 2003 and 2004 to 2,100 hectares yielding a potential 3.8 metric tons of pure heroin, mostly dla the US market; no poppy estimate was conducted w 2005
Import 16 million kWh (2005)
Import $30.83 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 6,453 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Import - partnerzy US 26.8%, Brazylia 8.6%, Meksyk 8.5%, Chiny 6%, Wenezuela 5.6%, Japonia 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 20 lipiec 1810 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 20.13 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 23.86 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 16.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 9,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Konstytucjaal Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress dla eight-year terms)
Sila robocza 20.65 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 22.7%


industry: 18.7%


services: 58.5% (2000 est.)
Granica total: 6,309 km


border countries: Brazylia 1,644 km, Ekwador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,800 km, Wenezuela 2,050 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.01%


permanent crops: 1.37%


other: 96.62% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted into law w 2004 and is gradually being implemented; judicial review of executive and legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 12 marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2010); House of Representatives - last held 12 marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2010)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSUN 20, PC 18, PL 18, CR 15, PDI 10, other parties 21; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 35, PSUN 33, PC 29, CR 20, PDA 8, other parties 41
Zywotnosc total population: 72.27 years


male: 68.44 years


female: 76.24 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 92.8%


male: 92.9%


female: 92.7% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Wenezuela, and bordering the North Ocean Spokojny, between Ekwador and Panama
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 15 ships (1000 GRT or over) 35,949 GRT/49,161 DWT


by type: cargo 11, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3


registered w other countries: 5 (Antigua i Barbuda 1, Panama 4) (2007)
Wojsko National Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, Colmar), and Coast Guard), Kolumbian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Kolumbia, FAC) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 20 lipiec (1810)
Narodowosc noun: Kolumbian(s)


adjective: Kolumbian
Naturalne zagrozenia highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 4,329 km; oil 6,140 km; refined products 3,145 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Kolumbian Conservative Party or PC [Julio MANZUR Abdala]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo]; Radical Change or CR [German VARGAS Lleras]; Social National Unity Party or U Party [Carlos GARCIA Orjuela]


note: Kolumbia has 15 formally recognized political parties, and numerous unofficial parties that did not meet the vote threshold w the marzec 2006 legislative elections required dla recognition
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN
Ludnosc 44,379,598 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 49.2% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 1.433% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,304 km


standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.024 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.951 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.769 male(s)/female


total population: 0.961 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern system w many respects; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services; fixed-line connections stand at about 18 per 100 persons; mobile cellular usage is about 70 per 100 persons


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system z 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities


international: country code - 57; submarine cables provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 7.865 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 29.763 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 60 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.51 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.6% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 18,000 km (2006)
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