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Colombia (2006)

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Colombia 2006 year

Administrative divisions 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Age structure 0-14 years: 30.3% (male 6,683,079/female 6,528,563)

15-64 years: 64.5% (male 13,689,384/female 14,416,439)

65 years and over: 5.2% (male 996,022/female 1,279,548) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Airports 984 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 101

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 38

914 to 1,523 m: 40

under 914 m: 12 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 883

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 35

914 to 1,523 m: 275

under 914 m: 572 (2006)
Area total: 1,138,910 sq km

land: 1,038,700 sq km

water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups - both heavily funded by the drug trade - escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence. Paramilitary groups challenge the insurgents for control of territory and the drug trade. Most paramilitary members have demobilized since 2002 in an ongoing peace process, although their commitment to ceasing illicit activity is unclear. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Birth rate 20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $46.82 billion

expenditures: $48.77 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Bogota

geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Coastline 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Constitution 5 July 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Colombia

conventional short form: Colombia

local long form: Republica de Colombia

local short form: Colombia
Death rate 5.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $32.35 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD

embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831

mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038

telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811

FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Carolina BARCO Isakson

chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338

FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Washington, DC
Disputes - international Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis with over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into neighboring states
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Colombia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, an export-oriented growth strategy, and an improved security situation in the country. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, which succeeded in reducing the public-sector deficit below 1.5% of GDP. The government's economic policy and democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have recovered from previous lows as the Colombian coffee industry pursues greater market shares in developed countries such as the United States.
Electricity - consumption 48.83 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 1.082 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 48.4 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 50.43 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m

note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Exchange rates Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,320.75 (2005), 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003), 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002)

cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents

elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010)

election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%
Exports 1.082 billion kWh (2003)
Exports $19.3 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Exports - partners US 41.8%, Venezuela 9.9%, Ecuador 6.3% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 12.5%

industry: 34.2%

services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.2% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Geography - note only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Heliports 2 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 7.9%

highest 10%: 34.3% (2004)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2004 was 114,100 hectares, virtually unchanged from 2003, but down one-third from its peak of 169,800 ha); producing a potential of 430 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplying most of the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation fell 50% between 2003 and 2004 to 2,100 hectares yielding a potential 3.8 metric tons of pure heroin, mostly for the US market; in 2004, aerial eradication treated over 130,000 hectares of coca but aggressive replanting on the part of growers means Colombia remains a key producer; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange
Imports 48.4 million kWh (2003)
Imports $18 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners US 28.5%, Mexico 8.3%, China 7.6%, Brazil 6.5%, Venezuela 5.7% (2005)
Independence 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 3.7% (2005 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Infant mortality rate total: 20.35 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.25 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 16.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2005 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 9,000 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Labor force 20.52 million (2005)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 22.7%

industry: 18.7%

services: 58.5% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 6,004 km

border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
Land use arable land: 2.01%

permanent crops: 1.37%

other: 96.62% (2005)
Languages Spanish
Legal system based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted into law in 2004 and is gradually being implemented; judicial review of executive and legislative acts
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010); House of Representatives - last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSUN 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 15, PDI 11, other parties 21; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 36, PSUN 30, PC 29, CR 20, PDA 42, other parties 42
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.99 years

male: 68.15 years

female: 75.96 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 92.4%

female: 92.6% (2003 est.)
Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 42,413 GRT/58,737 DWT

by type: cargo 13, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3

registered in other countries: 7 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Panama 5) (2006)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes naval aviation, marines, and coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana) (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.3 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.4% (FY01)
National holiday Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Nationality noun: Colombian(s)

adjective: Colombian
Natural hazards highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 4,360 km; oil 6,140 km; refined products 3,158 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Clandestine Communist Party of Colombia or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Colombian Conservative Party or PC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]; Social National Unity Party or PSUN [Juan Manuel SANTOS]

note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress
Political pressure groups and leaders two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest illegal paramilitary group, a roughly organized umbrella group of disparate paramilitary forces, is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC
Population 43,593,035 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 49.2% (2005)
Population growth rate 1.46% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Railways total: 3,304 km

standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system in many respects

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities

international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 7,678,800 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 21.85 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Terrain flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Total fertility rate 2.54 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.8% (2005 est.)
Waterways 18,000 km (2005)
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