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Colombia (2005)

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Colombia 2005 year

Administrative divisions 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Age structure 0-14 years: 30.7% (male 6,670,950/female 6,516,371)

15-64 years: 64.2% (male 13,424,433/female 14,142,825)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 968,127/female 1,231,573) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Airports 980 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 101

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 39

914 to 1,523 m: 39

under 914 m: 12 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 879

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 34

914 to 1,523 m: 272

under 914 m: 572 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,138,910 sq km

land: 1,038,700 sq km

water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Background Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries has grown to several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and the drug trade, and also the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While Bogota steps up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Birth rate 20.82 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $15.33 billion

expenditures: $21.03 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Bogota
Climate tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Coastline 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Constitution 5 July 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Colombia

conventional short form: Colombia

local long form: Republica de Colombia

local short form: Colombia
Death rate 5.59 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $38.7 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD

embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831

mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038

telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811

FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia

chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338

FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Beverly Hills, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC
Disputes - international Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis with over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into neighboring states
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview Colombia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, and an export-oriented growth focus. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, which include measures designed to reduce the public-sector deficit below 2.5% of GDP. The government's economic policy and democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have recovered from previous lows as the Colombian coffee industry pursues greater market shares in developed countries such as the United States.
Electricity - consumption 41.14 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 618 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 23 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 44.87 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m

note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Exchange rates Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003), 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001), 2,087.9 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents

elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 May 2002 (next to be held May 2006)

election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket
Exports 618 million kWh (2002)
Exports $15.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Exports - partners US 42.1%, Venezuela 9.7%, Ecuador 6% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13.4%

industry: 32.1%

services: 54.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Geography - note only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Heliports 1 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 112,998 km

paved: 26,000 km

unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 44% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2002 was 144,450 hectares, a 15% decline since 2001); potential production of opium between 2001 and 2002 declined by 25% to 91 metric tons; potential production of heroin declined to 11.3 metric tons; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of the cocaine to the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange
Imports 23 million kWh (2002)
Imports $15.34 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners US 29.1%, Venezuela 6.5%, China 6.4%, Mexico 6.2%, Brazil 5.8% (2004)
Independence 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2004 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Infant mortality rate total: 20.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.92 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 16.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.9% (2004 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 8,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Labor force 20.7 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 30%, industry 24%, services 46% (1990)
Land boundaries total: 6,004 km

border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
Land use arable land: 2.42%

permanent crops: 1.67%

other: 95.91% (2001)
Languages Spanish
Legal system based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted into law in 2004; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held March 2006); House of Representatives - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held March 2006)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents and smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 61; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 54, PSC 21, independents and other parties 91
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.72 years

male: 67.88 years

female: 75.7 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 92.4%

female: 92.6% (2003 est.)
Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 35,427 GRT/46,301 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 11, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2

registered in other countries: 7 (2005)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $3.3 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.4% (FY01)
National holiday Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Nationality noun: Colombian(s)

adjective: Colombian
Natural hazards highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 4,360 km; oil 6,134 km; refined products 3,140 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Democratic Pole or PDI [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Juan Fernando CRISTO]

note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress
Political pressure groups and leaders two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC
Population 42,954,279 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 55% (2001)
Population growth rate 1.49% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Muelles El Bosque, Puerto Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo
Radio broadcast stations AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Railways total: 3,304 km

standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system in many respects

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities

international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Telephones - main lines in use 8,768,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,186,200 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Terrain flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Total fertility rate 2.56 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 13.6% (2004 est.)
Waterways 9,187 km (2004)
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