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Kenya (2008)

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Kenya 2008 year

Administrative divisions 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.1% (male 7,826,804/female 7,720,456)

15-64 years: 55.2% (male 10,219,575/female 10,174,922)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 446,355/female 525,609) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Airports 225 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 210

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 113

under 914 m: 85 (2007)
Area total: 582,650 sq km

land: 569,250 sq km

water: 13,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Background Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement, which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI faces a tough reelection challenge from leading opposition candidate Raila ODINGA in polls slated for late 2007.
Birth rate 38.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $5.444 billion

expenditures: $6.399 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Nairobi

geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Coastline 536 km
Constitution 12 December 1963; amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, 2001; note - a new draft constitution was defeated by popular referendum in 2005
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Kenya

conventional short form: Kenya

local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri y Kenya

local short form: Kenya

former: British East Africa
Death rate 10.95 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $7.715 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER

embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi

mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831

telephone: [254] (20) 537-800

FAX: [254] (20) 537-810
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Rateng Oginga OGEGO

chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Disputes - international Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
Economic aid - recipient $768.3 million (2005)
Economy - overview The regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.2% in 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% in 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to the elections. In the key December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support, the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006. In 2006 the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending, despite little action on the government's part to deal with corruption. The scandals have not weighed down growth, with estimated real GDP growth at more than 6 percent in 2007.
Electricity - consumption 4.464 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 28 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 5.502 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Exchange rates Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 68.309 (2007), 72.101 (2006), 75.554 (2005), 79.174 (2004), 75.936 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); vice president appointed by the president

election results: President Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46%, Raila ODINGA 44%, Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $3.76 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 8,563 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners Uganda 15.9%, UK 10.3%, US 8.2%, Netherlands 7.9%, Tanzania 7.7%, Pakistan 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 23.8%

industry: 16.7%

services: 59.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Geography - note the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Illicit drugs widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
Imports 28 million kWh (2005)
Imports $7.602 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 70,540 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners UAE 11.8%, India 8.8%, China 8.3%, Saudi Arabia 8.3%, US 7%, South Africa 6.4%, UK 5.3%, Japan 4.7% (2006)
Independence 12 December 1963 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 6.1% (2007 est.)
Industries small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 57.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 60.44 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 54.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.3% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 1,030 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Labor force 11.85 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 75%

industry and services: 25% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,477 km

border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Land use arable land: 8.01%

permanent crops: 0.97%

other: 91.02% (2005)
Languages English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Legal system based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)

elections: last held 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 99, PNU 43, ODM-K 16, KANU 14 other 38; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - TBD
Life expectancy at birth total population: 55.31 years

male: 55.24 years

female: 55.37 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 85.1%

male: 90.6%

female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 3,737 GRT/5,558 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 1

registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 1, Comoros 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 2, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2007)
Military branches Kenyan Army, Kenyan Navy, Kenyan Air Force (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.8% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Nationality noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan
Natural hazards recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Natural resources limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines refined products 900 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya [Musikari KOMBO]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Simeon NYACHAE]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Raphael TUJU]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; labor unions; Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
Population 36,913,721

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.799% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Railways total: 2,778 km

narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%

note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.014 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.004 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.849 male(s)/female

total population: 1.004 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system

domestic: no recent growth in fixed-line infrastructure and the sole provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage

international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 293,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6.485 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 8 (2001)
Terrain low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Total fertility rate 4.82 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 40% (2001 est.)
Waterways part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya (2006)
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