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Kenya (2002)

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Kenya 2002 year

Administrative divisions 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 6,462,430; female 6,327,457)

15-64 years: 56.1% (male 8,769,546; female 8,694,329)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 385,361; female 499,612) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Airports 231 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 19

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 211

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 113

under 914 m: 83 (2002)
Area total: 582,650 sq km

land: 569,250 sq km

water: 13,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Background Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978, when current President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December of 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI of the Democratic Party of Kenya defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
Birth rate 27.61 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.91 billion

expenditures: $2.97 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) (2000 est.)
Capital Nairobi
Climate varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Coastline 536 km
Constitution 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, and 2001
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Kenya

conventional short form: Kenya

former: British East Africa
Currency Kenyan shilling (KES)
Death rate 14.68 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $8 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON

embassy: US Embassy, P. O. Box 30137 Mombasa Road (near St. James Hospital), Nairobi

mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831

telephone: [254] (2) 537-800

FAX: [254] (2) 537-810
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Yusuf Abdulraham NZIBO

chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829

consulate(s) general: offices in Los Angeles and New York are closed; mission to the UN remains open
Disputes - international since colonial times, Kenya's administrative boundary has extended beyond its treaty boundary into Sudan creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; arms smuggling and Oromo rebel activities prompt strict border regime with Somalia
Economic aid - recipient $457 million (1997) (1997)
Economy - overview Kenya, the regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, is hampered by corruption and reliance upon several primary goods whose prices continue to decline. Following strong economic growth in 1995 and 1996, Kenya's economy has stagnated, with GDP growth failing to keep up with the rate of population growth. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.3% in 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1%, and Kenya is unlikely to see growth above 2% in 2002. Substantial IMF and other foreign support is essential to prevent a further decline in real per capita output.
Electricity - consumption 4.433 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 140 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 4.616 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 22%

hydro: 70%

nuclear: 0%

other: 8% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Exchange rates Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 78.597 (January 2002), 78.563 (2001), 76.176 (2000), 70.326 (1999), 60.367 (1998), 58.732 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Michael Kijana WAMALWA (since 3 January 2003) note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Michael Kijana WAMALWA (since 3 January 2003) note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held NA December 2007); vice president appointed by the president

election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners UK 13.5%, Tanzania 12.5%, Uganda 12.0%, Germany 5.5% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 24%

industry: 13%

services: 63% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Geography - note the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Highways total: 63,300 km

paved: 8,940 km

unpaved: 54,360 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 37% (2000)
Illicit drugs widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center, massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
Imports 140 million kWh (2000)
Imports $3.1 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners UK 12%, UAE 9.8%, Japan 6.5%, India 4.4% (2000)
Independence 12 December 1963 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -0.7% (2001 est.)
Industries small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism
Infant mortality rate 67.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 65 (2001)
Irrigated land 670 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Labor force 10 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 75%-80%
Land boundaries total: 3,477 km

border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Land use arable land: 7.03%

permanent crops: 0.91%

other: 92.06% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Legal system based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)

elections: last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held by early 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NARC 125, KANU 64, FORD-P 14, other 7; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - NARC 7, KANU 4, FORD-P 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 47.02 years

male: 46.2 years

female: 47.85 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78.1%

male: 86.3%

female: 70% (1995 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,893 GRT/6,320 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $179.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 7,938,865 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,915,090 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Nationality noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan
Natural hazards recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Natural resources gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barites, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 2001 Kenya was host to 220,000 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 145,000 and Sudan 68,000 (2002 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 483 km
Political parties and leaders Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Mwai KIBAKI] - the governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY, chairman]
Population 31,138,735

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.15% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa
Radio broadcast stations AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios 3.07 million (1997)
Railways total: 2,778 km

narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge

note: the line connecting Nairobi with the port of Mombasa is the most important in the country
Religions Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2%

note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business

domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 310,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 540,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 8 (2002)
Terrain low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Total fertility rate 3.34 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 40% (2001 est.)
Waterways NA

note: part of the Lake Victoria system is within the boundaries of Kenya
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