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Kenya (2004)

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Kenya 2004 year

Administrative divisions 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.6% (male 6,575,409; female 6,430,218)

15-64 years: 56.5% (male 9,126,847; female 8,962,905)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 399,050; female 527,427) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Airports 221 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 206

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 110

under 914 m: 84 (2004 est.)
Area total: 582,650 sq km

land: 569,250 sq km

water: 13,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Background Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December of 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition, defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
Birth rate 27.82 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.761 billion

expenditures: $3.406 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Nairobi
Climate varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Coastline 536 km
Constitution 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, and 2001
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Kenya

conventional short form: Kenya

former: British East Africa
Currency Kenyan shilling (KES)
Death rate 16.31 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $5.916 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William M. BELLAMY

embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Ave., Gigiti; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi

mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831

telephone: [254] (2) 537-800

FAX: [254] (2) 537-810
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Leonard NGAITHE

chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Disputes - international Kenya's administrative boundary still extends into the Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Kenya has acted as an important mediator in Sudan's north-south civil war; Kenya and Uganda are working together to stem cattle rustling and violence by Lord's Resistance Army along the border
Economic aid - recipient $453 million (1997)
Economy - overview The regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption, notably in the judicial system, and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.2% in 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% in 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to the elections. In the key 27 December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. In 2003, progress was made in rooting out corruption, and encouraging donor support, with GDP growth edging up to 1.7%.
Electricity - consumption 3.981 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 230 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 4.033 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Exchange rates Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 75.9356 (2003), 78.7491 (2002), 78.5632 (2001), 76.1755 (2000), 70.3262 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held NA December 2007); vice president appointed by the president

election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $2.514 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners Uganda 12.7%, UK 12.5%, US 9.4%, Netherlands 8.5%, Pakistan 5%, Egypt 4.6%, Tanzania 4.3% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $33.03 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 19.7%

industry: 18.6%

services: 61.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Geography - note the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Highways total: 63,942 km

paved: 7,737 km

unpaved: 56,205 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Illicit drugs widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center, massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
Imports 230 million kWh (2001)
Imports $3.705 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners UAE 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.6%, South Africa 8.6%, UK 7.4%, China 6.3%, US 5.1%, India 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, Germany 4.2% (2003)
Independence 12 December 1963 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2003 est.)
Industries small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 62.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 65.55 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 59.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.8% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 670 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Labor force 11.45 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 75% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,477 km

border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Land use arable land: 8.08%

permanent crops: 0.98%

other: 90.94% (2001)
Languages English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Legal system based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)

elections: last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held by early 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NARC 125, KANU 64, FORD-P 14, other 7; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - NARC 7, KANU 4, FORD-P 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 44.94 years

male: 44.79 years

female: 45.1 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 85.1%

male: 90.6%

female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,049 GRT/7,082 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

registered in other countries: 9 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $231 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 8,313,051 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,150,405 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Nationality noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan
Natural hazards recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Natural resources gold, limestone, soda ash, salt, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 2001 Kenya was host to 220,000 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 145,000 and Sudan 68,000 (2004 est.)
Pipelines refined products 752 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Mwai KIBAKI] - the governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
Population 32,021,856

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.14% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa
Radio broadcast stations AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Railways total: 2,778 km

narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Religions Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2%

note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business

domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system

international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 328,400 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,590,800 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 8 (2002)
Terrain low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Total fertility rate 3.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 40% (2001 est.)
Waterways part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya (2004)
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