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Kenia (2008)

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Kenia 2008 roku

 Kenia
Podzial administracyjny 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Terytorium*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 42.1% (male 7,826,804/female 7,720,456)


15-64 years: 55.2% (male 10,219,575/female 10,174,922)


65 years and over: 2.6% (male 446,355/female 525,609) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Lotniska 225 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 210


1,524 to 2,437 m: 12


914 to 1,523 m: 113


under 914 m: 85 (2007)
Terytorium total: 582,650 sq km


land: 569,250 sq km


water: 13,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Tlo historyczne Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenia from independence w 1963 until his death w 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power w a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenia African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party w Kenia. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure dla political liberalization w late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power w elections w 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenian people. President MOI stepped down w grudzien 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered w 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined z KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement, which defeated the government's draft constitution w a popular referendum w listopad 2005. KIBAKI faces a tough reelection challenge from leading opposition candidate Raila ODINGA w polls slated dla late 2007.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 38.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $5.444 billion


expenditures: $6.399 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Nairobi


geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from tropical along coast to arid w interior
Linia brzegowa 536 km
Konstytucja 12 grudzien 1963; amended as a republic 1964; reissued z amendments 1979, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, 2001; note - a new draft constitution was defeated by popular referendum w 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kenia


conventional short form: Kenia


local long form: Republic of Kenia/Jamhuri y Kenia


local short form: Kenia


former: British East Africa
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.95 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.715 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER


embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi


mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831


telephone: [254] (20) 537-800


FAX: [254] (20) 537-810
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Rateng Oginga OGEGO


chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101


FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Kenia served as an important mediator w brokering Sudan's north-south separation w luty 2005; Kenia provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenia works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting w Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenia's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear w the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenia has administered since colonial times
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $768.3 million (2005)
Ekonomia The regional hub dla trade and finance w East Africa, Kenia has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenia's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenia's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, Produkt krajowy brutto contracted by 0.2% w 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans w 2000 to help Kenia through the drought, again halted lending w 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains w 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenia's economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% w 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to the elections. In the key grudzien 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress w rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support, the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals w 2005 and 2006. In 2006 the Swiat Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending, despite little action on the government's part to deal z corruption. The scandals have not weighed down growth, z estimated real Produkt krajowy brutto growth at more than 6 percent w 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 4.464 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 28 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.502 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Mount Kenia 5,199 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation w Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Kurs waluty Kenian shillings per US dollar - 68.309 (2007), 72.101 (2006), 75.554 (2005), 79.174 (2004), 75.936 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); w addition to receiving the largest number of votes w absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote w at least five of Kenia's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2012); vice president appointed by the president


election results: President Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46%, Raila ODINGA 44%, Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $3.76 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 8,563 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Eksport - partnerzy Uganda 15.9%, UK 10.3%, US 8.2%, Holandia 7.9%, Tanzania 7.7%, Pakistan 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged w white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 23.8%


industry: 16.7%


services: 59.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the Kenian Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions w Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenia, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Narkotyki widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country dla South Asian heroin destined dla Europe and North America; Indien methaqualone also transits on way to Republika Poludniowej Afryki; significant potential dla money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
Import 28 million kWh (2005)
Import $7.602 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 70,540 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Import - partnerzy UAE 11.8%, Indie 8.8%, Chiny 8.3%, Arabia Saudyjska 8.3%, US 7%, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 6.4%, UK 5.3%, Japonia 4.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 12 grudzien 1963 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 57.44 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 60.44 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 54.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,030 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Sila robocza 11.85 million (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 75%


industry and services: 25% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 3,477 km


border countries: Etiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 8.01%


permanent crops: 0.97%


other: 91.02% (2005)
Jezyki English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
System prawny based on Kenian statutory law, Kenian and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review w High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenia a de jure one-party state repealed w 1991
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties w proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)


elections: last held 27 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2012)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 99, PNU 43, ODM-K 16, KANU 14 other 38; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - TBD
Zywotnosc total population: 55.31 years


male: 55.24 years


female: 55.37 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 85.1%


male: 90.6%


female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Africa, bordering the Ocean Indyjski, between Somalia and Tanzania
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 3,737 GRT/5,558 DWT


by type: petroleum tanker 1


registered w other countries: 5 (Bahamas 1, Komory 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 2, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2007)
Wojsko Kenian Army, Kenian Navy, Kenian Air Force (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 12 grudzien (1963)
Narodowosc noun: Kenian(s)


adjective: Kenian
Naturalne zagrozenia recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Surowce naturalne limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 900 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-Kenia or FORD-Kenia [Musikari KOMBO]; Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Simeon NYACHAE]; Kenia African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenia or NARC-Kenia [Raphael TUJU]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenia or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenia or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenia Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; labor unions; Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenia or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenia Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
Ludnosc 36,913,721


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.799% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,778 km


narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%


note: a large majority of Kenians are Christian, but estimates dla the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.014 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.004 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.849 male(s)/female


total population: 1.004 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system


domestic: no recent growth w fixed-line infrastructure and the sole provider, Telkom Kenia, is slated dla privatization; multiple providers w the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom w mobile-cellular telephone usage


international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 293,400 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 6.485 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 8 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.82 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 40% (2001 est.)
Drogi wodne part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenia (2006)
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